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India’s G20 Presidency and the future of cities
Dec 08, 2022

India’s G20 Presidency and the future of cities

India now has the unique opportunity to outline and action specific U20 goals to link with the larger objectives of G20

India’s Growing Energy Insecurity: Volatile crude prices and a tattered road map to reform
Feb 13, 2009

India’s Growing Energy Insecurity: Volatile crude prices and a tattered road map to reform

Over the past few years, there is noticeable amongst India watchers an inescapable feeling of disappointment at what has been seen as a perceptible rolling back of many of the much vaunted reforms that had been the face of the country's efforts to integrate with world energy markets through the turn of the century. With an import dependence of over 70%, and increasing with each passing year, the petroleum sector had been the obvious choice to mov

India’s Leap: Embracing IR 4.0 to Building for the World
Jan 26, 2022

India’s Leap: Embracing IR 4.0 to Building for the World

Digital India today, means different things to different people, but for the world, it means that India with its technology is here to lead

India’s Northeast: Partnerships for economic prosperity
Apr 22, 2024

India’s Northeast: Partnerships for economic prosperity

Global partnerships across domains hold promise for bridging developmental disparities and bolstering the Northeast's economic outlook

India’s Nuclear Security Regime: Physical Protection and Crisis Management Measures
Jul 19, 2022

India’s Nuclear Security Regime: Physical Protection and Crisis Management Measures

The security of nuclear and radiological materials is a critical global issue due to the growing number of existing and emerging threats in the nuclear domain. Within the broad domain of nuclear security, several challenges and threats—such as the physical protection of nuclear materials, insider threat, transportation security, and cyber threats—have raised concerns among governments and the international community. This report focuses on th

India’s nuclear triad: still a work in progress
May 10, 2023

India’s nuclear triad: still a work in progress

The 160 warheads and new delivery vehicles that India possesses are enough to convey resolve to opponents and make deterrence credible

India’s pink economy
Mar 02, 2024

India’s pink economy

Unlocking the economic potential of the LGBTQ+ community will enhance India’s economic progress by tapping into diverse talents, driving innovation,

India’s policy pathways for deep decarbonisation
Nov 11, 2021

India’s policy pathways for deep decarbonisation

What are the policy changes that need to be adopted by India to ensure that it fully utilises the opportunities arising from green transition?

India’s pursuit of United Nations Security Council reforms
Dec 24, 2017

India’s pursuit of United Nations Security Council reforms

The United Nations Security Council has emerged as the key arena and barometer for evaluating the promise and progress of accommodating new, rising powers in the international system. The case of India provides one of the best examples of a rising power coming to terms with its increased power, role and expectations of itself and of other powers, great and small, in negotiating its place in the reformed Council as a permanent member. This paper b

India’s reluctance in joining the RCEP — A boon or a bane in the long-run?
Feb 10, 2021

India’s reluctance in joining the RCEP — A boon or a bane in the long-run?

The success of not signing the RCEP should be measured by the extent to which India is able to align the goals of its foreign trade policy.

India’s response to state fragility in Africa
Oct 27, 2017

India’s response to state fragility in Africa

New Delhi is increasingly positioning itself as a significant player in African peace, security and development. Examining the question of how India responds to state fragility in Africa, this brief finds that India’s engagement is mostly transactional: working around, rather than on, sources of political fragility. Development and security interventions tend to operate in silos, but might change if Indian commercial investments are threatened

India’s Seychelles military base roadblock has a China subtext
Mar 23, 2018

India’s Seychelles military base roadblock has a China subtext

China is a new entrant into the Indian Ocean, and there is a lot of concern over its development of ports and infrastructure and links with various countries. India must not overstate China's significance.

India’s skillful posturing with the US
Oct 20, 2018

India’s skillful posturing with the US

India and the US may have policy differences on Russia and Iran, but keep big-picture focus on defense cooperation

India’s strategic unicorn in Chabahar
Dec 12, 2017

India’s strategic unicorn in Chabahar

The security dimension of Chabahar is based on a preferential approach towards Indian interests rather than one based on exclusivity by Iran

India’s Taliban Outreach
Jun 17, 2022

India’s Taliban Outreach

Greater engagement with the Taliban will create new possibilities for India as other regional players such as China, Russia and Iran look for ways to step up their engagement

India’s UPI Market: Projections for Growth Under Various GDP Scenarios
Sep 08, 2023

India’s UPI Market: Projections for Growth Under Various GDP Scenarios

This paper projects the nationwide and state-wise size of India’s Unified Payments Interface (UPI) market under various GDP growth scenarios. The market sizes under these scenarios are expressed in monetary values at the scale of both sub-national units and the Indian economy as a whole. With the help of transactions and market share data from Phonepe, a UPI company, the paper estimates the national and state-wise base case scenario market volu

India’s ‘Look Far East’: The Vladivostok moment in Indo-Russian relations
May 26, 2020

India’s ‘Look Far East’: The Vladivostok moment in Indo-Russian relations

This paper explains Russian co-option of India into the Eastern Economic Forum (EEF) at a high level of participation in September 2019 and the range of agreements involved. It argues that the co-option was the result of Russian President Vladimir Putin’s dissatisfaction with the economic outcomes so far for the Russian Far East of “northeast Asian regional cooperation.” Moscow related this behaviour to skewed priorities of East Asia’s �

Indo-Japanese Partnership: The Security Factor
May 28, 2009

Indo-Japanese Partnership: The Security Factor

There is a fundamental transformation in the Japanese assessment of India's role in the shaping of new Asian security architecture. There has been a perceptible change in the nature of the bilateral partnership since the turn of the century. Rather than being centred on economic interactions. Indo-Japanese ties today cover a far wider spectrum of subjects...

Indo-Pak Dialogue Process: Moving Forward
May 19, 2004

Indo-Pak Dialogue Process: Moving Forward

The process of rapprochement between India and Pakistan began during the SAARC summit at Islamabad in January 2004. The two estranged neighbors set aside the bitterness of the recent past and decided to work together for peace and stability. That such a beginning could be made is itself a major achievement.

Indo-US defence cooperation: Challenges ahead
Apr 03, 2015

Indo-US defence cooperation: Challenges ahead

Though domestic politics have not always promoted closer US-India defence cooperation, changed geopolitical context, regional and global advances now pull India and America together, says the US co-chair of the DTTI, Frank Kendall. Even perceptions of security challenges of both the countries are increasingly converging.

Indo-US Strategic Dialogue
Dec 10, 2003

Indo-US Strategic Dialogue

Observer Research Foundation in collaboration with RAND organized a two-day Indo-US Strategic Dialogue at ORF Campus, New Delhi, on December 10 and 11, 2003.

Indoor air pollution — A challenge for India
Jul 12, 2019

Indoor air pollution — A challenge for India

Complete transition towards clean cooking fuels has a long journey to cover.

Indus Treaty: Why India cannot afford to fight fire with water
Feb 25, 2019

Indus Treaty: Why India cannot afford to fight fire with water

India must honour its treaty commitments over a resource that everyday lives depend on.

Infibeam Avenues: One-stop for payments, digital infrastructure and platforms
Nov 05, 2020

Infibeam Avenues: One-stop for payments, digital infrastructure and platforms

As part of the Digital India movement, we see several initiatives in e-governance that are bound to transform India into a digitally empowered society

Infiltration from Bangladesh more dangerous than from Pakistan: Ex-DGMO
Nov 23, 2013

Infiltration from Bangladesh more dangerous than from Pakistan: Ex-DGMO

Though infiltration from Pakistan is of great concern, those from Bangladesh in the form of illegal migrants pose a more serious threat to the nation, according to Lt-Gen (Retd) Anand Verma, former Director-General of Military Operations.

Informal modern education the only hope in present Kashmir crises
Sep 21, 2019

Informal modern education the only hope in present Kashmir crises

As Kashmiris stare at an uncertain future, mohalla schools have kept the lamp of education burning for the Valley’s children.

Institutional architecture for India’s development cooperation: A 2030 vision
May 02, 2021

Institutional architecture for India’s development cooperation: A 2030 vision

To assert itself at a global scale, India must employ development cooperation objectives and utilise multilateral and plurilateral forums through a st

Intelligence Agencies in India: Need for a public interface
Aug 23, 2023

Intelligence Agencies in India: Need for a public interface

Today's intelligence agencies operate in highly complex environments. Cold War definitions and understanding of threats have long become redundant. Threats are multiple, layered, networked, diffused and transcend social and spatial boundaries.

Intensification of Xi’s anti-corruption campaign
Sep 27, 2022

Intensification of Xi’s anti-corruption campaign

Xi Jinping’s security purge gathers steam ahead of China’s leadership transition.

International Jihadi Terrorism: A US Perspective - Part III
May 03, 2005

International Jihadi Terrorism: A US Perspective - Part III

India has been a major beneficiary of the decision of the Bush Administration to transfer the responsibility for the compilation and analysis of statistical data relating to significant international terrorist attacks from the Counter-Terrorism Division of the State Department to the newly-created National Counter-Terrorism Centre (NCTC) presently headed by John Brennan as the acting Director.

Internet suspension in India: A call for balancing security and rights
Apr 07, 2023

Internet suspension in India: A call for balancing security and rights

The current legal regime governing internet shutdowns must be overhauled to place greater emphasis on transparency and accountability

Interpreting the ethnic strife in Manipur
May 17, 2023

Interpreting the ethnic strife in Manipur

The festering age-old ethnic divide amongst the tribes in Manipur has led to the ongoing crisis. All key stakeholders need to be active to ensure this

Invest more in R&D: Defence Minister
Mar 12, 2005

Invest more in R&D: Defence Minister

Union Defence Minister Mr Pranab Mukherjee stressed the need for the corporate sector to adopt a greater role in India¿s defence sector. He was delivering the first annual lecture of the ORF Mumbai Chapter of Observer Research Foundation (ORF), on March 12, 2005.

Investigating the ecological decline in the Sundarbans
Jun 11, 2024

Investigating the ecological decline in the Sundarbans

Despite efforts by New Delhi and Dhaka to conserve the Sundarbans, institutional safeguards do not effectively translate into on-the-ground protection

IPEF: Trade in policy, not in pact
Jun 22, 2022

IPEF: Trade in policy, not in pact

With Biden and IPEF highlighting economic transparency, it is seen as a way for Washington to create an Indo-Pacific trade bloc without creating a tra

Iraq - the Dynamics, ten years on
Mar 11, 2013

Iraq - the Dynamics, ten years on

A decade ago this month, the United States and its British auxiliaries abused international law by invading Iraq. India looked on helplessly then, but is it in a position to affect another unjust invasion, this time directed at Iran?

Iraq and After
Jun 30, 2004

Iraq and After

It may not be the story that Paul Bremer or Iyyad Allawi would want to muse over for their grandchildren: ¿I was among the handful there...¿ Yet, that¿s truth about power-transfer in Iraq, America¿s testing-ground for western democracy in the feudalistic Gulf Arab region living in a decadent past.

Iraq Continues To Bleed
Dec 29, 2003

Iraq Continues To Bleed

Police and Army are perceived to be low . The mercenaries of the Iraqi members of the governing council such as Ahmed Chalabi are better paid. The staff of the Iraqi Police and Army were till recently not entitled to the war hazard allowance. A proposal to grant that allowance even to them was under consideration.

Is a sense of hubris slowing down Modi?
Aug 17, 2017

Is a sense of hubris slowing down Modi?

The wide ramparts of Delhi’s historic Red Fort have set the stage for prime ministers to grandstand every year since 1947.

Is banning cycle traffic in Kolkata sensible?
Oct 30, 2013

Is banning cycle traffic in Kolkata sensible?

I want to ride my bicycle, I want to ride it where I like . This 35-year old rock hymn from "Queen" might evolve to the protest song of those cyclists in Kolkata who were recently banned to use their own means of transport in any of the city's 174 busiest streets.

Is China practising new form of imperialism in Africa?
Feb 10, 2015

Is China practising new form of imperialism in Africa?

Many see China to be practicing a new form of imperialism in Africa as it imports primary goods from Africa and exports manufacturing goods to Africa, without transferring skills to the continent. And China-Africa ties are not free from challenges. There is also immense potential.

Is increasing wealth inequality coming in the way of economic growth in India?
Oct 21, 2021

Is increasing wealth inequality coming in the way of economic growth in India?

Empirical data implies that increase in the income of lower income group directly translates into an increase in consumption. Therefore, the governmen

Is India the New China in Africa?
Jun 18, 2021

Is India the New China in Africa?

Promising a more inclusive and transparent development model, New Delhi is looking to become the region’s biggest partner.

Is India’s Chabahar calculus in trouble?
Jul 21, 2020

Is India’s Chabahar calculus in trouble?

Recent developments bring to light two key costs for India as it seeks to pursue its interests at Chabahar: access to Afghanistan and its leadership i

Is Indo-Pacific a viable geostrategic project?
Jul 25, 2019

Is Indo-Pacific a viable geostrategic project?

The Belt and Road Initiative and the “free and open” Indo-Pacific are competing initiatives. However, the real choice will be made by developing s

Is it time for a stronger India-Brazil relationship?
Nov 22, 2019

Is it time for a stronger India-Brazil relationship?

Modi and Bolsonaro might be the leaders to transform this stagnant relationship.

IS Khorasan, the US–Taliban Deal, and the Future of South Asian Security
Dec 15, 2020

IS Khorasan, the US–Taliban Deal, and the Future of South Asian Security

The Taliban today undoubtedly has a stronger hold over how the US militarily plans to withdraw from the conflict in Afghanistan. This raises questions about the continuing challenges to security in South Asia—in particular, the influence of IS Khorasan (IS-K), the group’s Afghanistan avatar, and its rise both as an ISIS-aligned entity and a big-tent brand for various jihadist groups in the country. As the ‘Khorasan’ project of ISIS gets m