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No second innings for Imran Khan
Jun 01, 2023

No second innings for Imran Khan

Can Imran Khan make his way back into the centre-stage of Pakistan’s politics?

No tolerance for terror — Biden on South Asia
Nov 10, 2020

No tolerance for terror — Biden on South Asia

Even as Biden backs the Afghan peace process, he favours a more gradual and ‘responsible’ withdrawal of US troops from Afghanistan.

Non-motorised transport should top the global urban agenda in 2021
Dec 22, 2020

Non-motorised transport should top the global urban agenda in 2021

As the world grapples with the new normal, public transport and mass mobility are poised to undergo a transformative change.

Nuclear debates in West Asia since Pokhran II
May 09, 2023

Nuclear debates in West Asia since Pokhran II

A desire for nuclear weapons is an old aim in West Asia, which could materialise in the coming days due to weak non-proliferation norms

Nuclear Developments in Iran: Comprehending the Indian View
Apr 21, 2015

Nuclear Developments in Iran: Comprehending the Indian View

This paper examines Indian policies and decisions on Iran's nuclear programme and reveals a number of critical factors which have influenced New Delhi on this matter in varying degrees.

Nuclear Iran and the US: A Status Report
Sep 15, 2003

Nuclear Iran and the US: A Status Report

Since the early 1990's the nuclear non-proliferation regime, the centerpiece of which is the NPT, has grappled with an increasing number of threshold nuclear weapons states. The most recent case is of Iran which is believed to be pursuing a program for weapons of mass destruction. This is complicated by the fact that the US has a troubled relationship with Iran. This Issue recommends that the US and other western powers adopt a cooperative approa

Nuclear Negotiations with Iran: A Reality Check
Aug 23, 2023

Nuclear Negotiations with Iran: A Reality Check

Nuclear development in Iran has been an issue of great concern, not only to its neighbours in West Asia, but also for the global powers, in the interests of regional and global stability. At present, efforts are being made to find a solution to the crisis. The interim nuclear deal signed between Iran and P5+1 (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States and Germany) on 24 November 2013, and the complementary Framework for Coopera

Nuclear Security: India and the NTI Ranking
Aug 23, 2023

Nuclear Security: India and the NTI Ranking

In light of the 2014 NTI Index which ranks India 23rd out of 25 countries with weapons-usable nuclear materials, this issue brief highlights problem areas in the Index and proposes suggestions for improving the Indian nuclear security regime.

O-RAN को समझने की कोशिश: 5G से आगे की डिजिटल कनेक्टिविटी का ब्लूप्रिंट
Apr 29, 2024

O-RAN को समझने की कोशिश: 5G से आगे की डिजिटल कनेक्टिविटी का ब्लूप्रिंट

पारंपरिक व्यवस्थाओं के हार्डवेयर और सॉफ्टवेयर को अलग अल�

O-RAN समजून घेण्याचा प्रयत्न: 5G च्या पलीकडे डिजिटल कनेक्टिव्हिटीसाठी ब्लूप्रिंट
May 09, 2024

O-RAN समजून घेण्याचा प्रयत्न: 5G च्या पलीकडे डिजिटल कनेक्टिव्हिटीसाठी ब्लूप्रिंट

O - RAN ची लेगसी सिस्टीमचे हार्डवेअर आणि सॉफ्टवेअर वेगळे करण

OCEN: A digital transformation of credit systems?
Dec 26, 2022

OCEN: A digital transformation of credit systems?

OCEN could emerge as a uniquely Indian digital success story in the years ahead

On Iran and Trump, India has landed between a rock and a hard place
May 14, 2018

On Iran and Trump, India has landed between a rock and a hard place

If India aspires to be a 'leading power', it may soon have to choose between its strategically autonomous goals, and those which the Trump administration has in mind for the region.

ORF-GIZ Urban Workshop Series Affordable and Liveable Housing for the Migrants and Urban Poor
Jul 25, 2013

ORF-GIZ Urban Workshop Series Affordable and Liveable Housing for the Migrants and Urban Poor

The demand for basic needs has outpaced supply in many cities of the world. This fact is observed in the urban housing sector. High economic growth along with urbanisation has created a huge demand for housing, and according to recent estimates, there is a massive shortage of dwelling units in many urban areas of the world.

Pakistan media’s strange silence on India-China border spat in Ladakh
May 25, 2020

Pakistan media’s strange silence on India-China border spat in Ladakh

Despite reports of unarmed clashes between the Indian and Chinese soldiers and the fact that the stand-offs are taking place at more than one place �

Pakistan PM Imran Khan’s downfall is unlikely to change India-Pakistan ties
Mar 28, 2022

Pakistan PM Imran Khan’s downfall is unlikely to change India-Pakistan ties

Khan’s possible ouster is unlikely to bring any radical change in India-Pakistan relations. The bilateral relationship has plateaued since PTI came to power.

Pakistan poll: Imran Khan down, but not out
May 22, 2013

Pakistan poll: Imran Khan down, but not out

All is not lost for Pakistan's Imran Khan. He may not have succeeded in "sweeping the elections" but his performance was a significant improvement from his previous outings. From having secured only one seat in 2002, his party emerged with a plurality in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Pakistan's naval transformation: Dangerous delusions, soaring ambitions
Dec 12, 2016

Pakistan's naval transformation: Dangerous delusions, soaring ambitions

The combination of dangerous delusions, soaring ambitions and a fatal nuclear obsession could spark another round of strategic brinkmanship in South Asia, with disastrous consequences for regional security. Navy is supposed to be the new domain for another round of brinkmanship

Pakistan: Anxiously waiting for its first democratic transfer of power
Mar 11, 2013

Pakistan: Anxiously waiting for its first democratic transfer of power

It may not have been pretty, but the finish-line is within sight for the Zardari-led coalition government in Pakistan. And the first democratic transfer of power is a significant milestone in the growth of democracy in the country.

Pakistan: On COVID-19 steps, Imran gives in to radical mullahs
Apr 28, 2020

Pakistan: On COVID-19 steps, Imran gives in to radical mullahs

COVID-19 has once again exposed the widening rift between radical religious organisations, their parochial leaders — and the government.

Pakistan’s euphoria from Trump’s talks with Imran Khan may not last
Jul 31, 2019

Pakistan’s euphoria from Trump’s talks with Imran Khan may not last

Can Pakistan help the US tame the Taliban so that Trump can withdraw US forces from Afghanistan? That’s the price the US demands in exchange for aid for Pakistan’s floundering economy, but success is far from assured

Pakistan’s isolation is responsible for its recent rants at UNGA
Sep 27, 2017

Pakistan’s isolation is responsible for its recent rants at UNGA

Pakistan continues to live in its own world as was reflected in its PM’s statement that there is no role for India in Afghanistan. Many in Pakistan are now putting all their eggs in China’s basket. The Xiamen BRICS declaration, which listed Pakistan-based terror organisations for the first time, should be a warning to Pakistan than an isolated Pakistan would be of little use to even China.

Pakistan’s Senate elections: Imran Khan and the army’s PDM dilemma
Mar 13, 2021

Pakistan’s Senate elections: Imran Khan and the army’s PDM dilemma

While the elections may be over and the PDM may have won this battle, the war continues to be fought.

Pinak Ranjan Chakravarty

Pinak Chakravarty was a Visiting Fellow with ORF's Regional Studies Initiative where he oversees the West Asia Initiative Bangladesh and selected ASEAN-related issues. He joined the ORF in October 2014.

A former member of the Indian Foreign Service (1977 batch), he has served as a diplomat in Indian Diplomatic Missions in Cairo, Jeddah and London. Later, was Consul-General of India in Karachi, 1994-1995; Counsellor/Minister, DCM at the Indian Embassy in Tel Aviv, 1995-1999; and Deputy High Commissioner at Dhaka, 1999-2002. At the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA), he served as Deputy Chief of Protocol, Deputy Secretary/Director in the Americas Division and as Director, SAARC Summit Secretariat, 1995. He was the Chief of Protocol from 2002 to 2006, after which he was nominated as Ambassador to the Philippines but later shifted to Bangladesh where he served as High Commissioner from 2007 to 2009. From 2010 to 2011 he served as Ambassador to Thailand. Returning to Delhi he served as Special Secretary (Public Diplomacy) before he was appointed Secretary (Economic Relations) in the MEA. He retired from service in September 2013.

He is a regular contributor to newspapers, journals and books. His latest journal article is titled "Bangladesh-India Ties: Pragmatic Transformation," published in the <em>Indian Foreign Affairs Journal</em>. One of his recent book chapters is titled "Bridging the Hiatus of History: India’s Look East Policy" in <em>India’s Asia-Pacific Engagement: Impulses and Imperatives</em> (Manohar 2015).

He also participates in TV programmes on foreign policy and strategic affairs.

Pipelines to swords: How Covid-19 shifted focus from energy cooperation to securitisation in the Eastern Mediterranean
Jun 06, 2020

Pipelines to swords: How Covid-19 shifted focus from energy cooperation to securitisation in the Eastern Mediterranean

Covid-19-related economic repercussions have rendered the unifying, cooperation-creating element of a common energy market in the Eastern Mediterranea

PLA may get a larger role in China’s grand strategy
Jul 06, 2022

PLA may get a larger role in China’s grand strategy

China aims to enhance its status as a great power by redefining the role of the PLA in its grand strategy.

PLA preparing for a grand slam
Dec 07, 2020

PLA preparing for a grand slam

Xi’s stint in military bureaucracy comes handy in making PLA a fighting force.

Pokhran II and India’s nuclear energy rise: Trends and challenges
May 10, 2023

Pokhran II and India’s nuclear energy rise: Trends and challenges

A well-designed and predictable policy regime is crucial to realise the atomic energy sector’s real potential

Political  Iran
Jun 25, 2013

Political Iran

It is easy to be cynical about the elections in Iran to choose a new president. After all, the elected president does not dominate Iran's complex political system. That privilege belongs to the Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. This does necessarily mean the current elections are inconsequential.

Post-Genocide Rwanda's dramatic transition
May 22, 2015

Post-Genocide Rwanda's dramatic transition

As Rwanda commemorates 1994 genocide, now it has become a global example of successful post-conflict reconstruction. A talk at ORF by Rwandan High Commissioner Ernest Rwamucyo focussed on post-genocide Rwanda's unique story where ownership and innovative "home-grown solutions" helped re-construct the nation.

Power and transformation: Jayantanuja Bandyopadhyaya’s hybrid International Relations theory
Aug 20, 2023

Power and transformation: Jayantanuja Bandyopadhyaya’s hybrid International Relations theory

This brief explores the work of the Bengali diplomat and academic Jayantanuja Bandyopadhyaya, whose book, The Making of Indian Foreign Policy (1970) is considered a classic in Indian scholarship in International Relations. It analyses Bandyopadhyaya’s distinctive contribution to IR theory, especially his attempt to craft a “hybrid” approach derived from Gandhi and Mao, on the one hand, and behavouralist systems theories, on the other. It