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The Crypto Winter: क्रिप्टोकरेंसी बाज़ार में छाया सन्नाटा, FTX का पतन और भरोसे का संकट!
Dec 27, 2022

The Crypto Winter: क्रिप्टोकरेंसी बाज़ार में छाया सन्नाटा, FTX का पतन और भरोसे का संकट!

ऐसा लगता है कि लगातार बढ़ती भरोसे की कमी संकटों के दौर के �

The deepening of India–Israel defence ties
Jun 07, 2022

The deepening of India–Israel defence ties

Cooperation in various areas ranging from technology to defence has led to the opening up of a new potential partnership between the two-tech savvy de

The Delhi Blasts: What Next?
Nov 09, 2005

The Delhi Blasts: What Next?

The three synchronised Delhi blasts of October 29,2005, have proved¿¿if further proof was needed¿¿that the motivation and the morale of the pan-Islamic jihadi terrorists belonging to the International Islamic Front (IIF) formed by Osama bin Laden in 1998 continue to remain undamaged, despite the successes scored by our security agencies in neutralising many of their sleeper cells.

The Democracy Turning Its Back on Ukraine
Mar 15, 2022

The Democracy Turning Its Back on Ukraine

For reasons to do with history and strategy, India will not abandon Russia.

The Digital Silk Road in the Indo-Pacific: Mapping China’s Vision for Global Tech Expansion
Jan 03, 2024

The Digital Silk Road in the Indo-Pacific: Mapping China’s Vision for Global Tech Expansion

The Digital Silk Road (DSR), part of the Belt and Road Initiative, symbolises China’s approach to expanding information exchanges and digital cooperation with emerging markets and developing economies. Under the DSR, several private corporations and state-owned enterprises supported by Chinese state banks are offering inexpensive technological contracts and rapidly building digital infrastructure projects. This brief examines the operationalisa

The Draft Digital Personal Data Protection Bill 2022: Recommendations to the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology
Jan 18, 2023

The Draft Digital Personal Data Protection Bill 2022: Recommendations to the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology

The recommendations are based on a stakeholder consultation organised by ORF on 1 December 2022. Although the authors have made the best efforts to give voice to the concerns of various stakeholder groups, this is not a consensus document and does not attribute comments to, or claim to represent, the positions of any individual or organisation. All statements, assertions or factual errors are attributable only to ORF.

The dragon in the room
Dec 21, 2012

The dragon in the room

India has indeed sounded the trumpet of defence diplomacy as part of its engagement with the ASEAN over the last two decades. If Delhi does not help promote a stable balance of power in Southeast Asia now, India's own security challenges in the future could get a lot more daunting.

The dying embers of the old order in Asia
Mar 30, 2017

The dying embers of the old order in Asia

Countries like India that have relied on the extant order for furthering their economic and security agendas will have to rethink their own roles and priorities

The Dynamics of LTTE’S Commercial Maritime Infrastructure
Jun 04, 2005

The Dynamics of LTTE’S Commercial Maritime Infrastructure

This paper examines the maritime infrastructure of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)--tracing the history of the development of its maritime organisation, infrastructure and strategy. The paper focuses on the salience of sea power as perceived by a violent non-state actor and provides a perspective on how non-state actors employ sea power in asymmetric conflicts

The Emerging Domains of Conflict in the 21st Century
Aug 14, 2023

The Emerging Domains of Conflict in the 21st Century

Human civilisation is at a new moment of transition across social norms, economics, governance, and the environment, and is facing the dawn of a new era of inter-planetary human migration (to Mars). In the future, historians will look to the first half of the 21st century to tell the story of how these changes started and unfolded through five domains of conflict. These domains touch on the unravelling of governance structures in need of

The EU and ASEAN deepen ties
Dec 20, 2022

The EU and ASEAN deepen ties

In the recent summit, the EU reiterated its interest in ASEAN given the evolving geostrategic and geoeconomic situation

The EU-India Relationship at 60: Where is it headed in 2023?
Mar 23, 2023

The EU-India Relationship at 60: Where is it headed in 2023?

India and the EU must work together to ensure that their partnership remains a positive force for stability and development in the Indo-Pacific region

The evolution of India’s West Asian policy
Oct 31, 2019

The evolution of India’s West Asian policy

In the past, India has managed a successful balancing act in a tripolar West Asia. Now, the restructuring of West Asia’s geopolitical landscape has

The fearsome foursome in Modi season 2
Jun 04, 2019

The fearsome foursome in Modi season 2

The team comprising of Home Minister Amit Shah, External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar, Defence Minister Rajnath Singh and the NSA Ajit Doval is a se

The final burial of non-alignment
Nov 17, 2015

The final burial of non-alignment

India, which clung to non-alignment as its international identity since Independence, had little inclination for defence diplomacy. But now New Delhi is slowly moving away from a fastidious avoidance of military partnerships in the past to making security cooperation an important part of India's foreign relations now.

The fractured diplomacy of countering terrorism
Feb 01, 2022

The fractured diplomacy of countering terrorism

What are the gains that diplomacy on counter-terrorism, resolutions of the UN Security Council and other such multilateral instruments bring to the table?

The futility of the New Silk Route
May 01, 2012

The futility of the New Silk Route

A New Silk Road is magical thinking, given that Afghanistan remains a hotbed of instability plagued by daunting challenges. Lack of security has already delayed Tapi, the natural gas pipeline linking Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.

The Future of Cyber Warfare in the Indo-Pacific
Jan 13, 2023

The Future of Cyber Warfare in the Indo-Pacific

The rapid growth in military cyber capabilities of the countries in the Indo-Pacific combined with the use of assets from the cyberwarfare toolbox—in domestic and interstate contexts—is adding uncertainty to already competitive political, military, and economic relations. This issue brief assesses the cyberwarfare context in the Indo-Pacific, and reviews the military cyber capabilities of the region’s countries and their commitment to inter

The Future of Cyberwarfare in the Indo-Pacific
Jan 13, 2023

The Future of Cyberwarfare in the Indo-Pacific

The rapid growth in military cyber capabilities of the countries in the Indo-Pacific combined with the use of assets from the cyberwarfare toolbox—in domestic and interstate contexts—is adding uncertainty to already competitive political, military, and economic relations. This issue brief assesses the cyberwarfare context in the Indo-Pacific, and reviews the military cyber capabilities of the region’s countries and their commitment to inter

The Future of Food: Reimagining Climate-Resilient Food Systems in the Post-Pandemic World
Jul 03, 2022

The Future of Food: Reimagining Climate-Resilient Food Systems in the Post-Pandemic World

Thinking about the future of global food systems has now become more critical than ever. Climate change impacts—among them, shifts in soil quality, precipitation, pest regimes, seasonal growth patterns, along with land degradation and reduction in biodiversity—have impacted agricultural and aquatic food production systems across the world. Indeed, the causal links between climate change and food security are manifesting more clearly, particul

The Future of Nuclear Disarmament: A look at the Tenth NPT Review Conference
Aug 31, 2022

The Future of Nuclear Disarmament: A look at the Tenth NPT Review Conference

The RevCon takes place at a time when the international security context is unpredictable and the need for meaningful dialogue and subsequent implemen

The future of the Quad in the Indo-Pacific
Feb 22, 2024

The future of the Quad in the Indo-Pacific

Despite detractions, the Quad must continue to do what it is doing—to focus on delivery of its promises and to build on areas of success

The future of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
Oct 17, 2014

The future of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

SCO members need to take a two-track approach to make it a successful regional grouping. At the macro level, it must forge a common vision and mutual trust with similar groupings such as the Collective Security Treaty Organization. At a micro level, bilateral and regional issues between member states need to be addressed.

The G20 and the role of Public Development Banks in fostering sustainable agri-food systems
Oct 31, 2022

The G20 and the role of Public Development Banks in fostering sustainable agri-food systems

The G20 will need to deliver on its collaborative commitment to accelerate the investment momentum in our agri-food systems in order to build sustaina

The G20 Digital Agenda: Cross-Presidency Priorities
Nov 24, 2023

The G20 Digital Agenda: Cross-Presidency Priorities

The G20 Digital Agenda: Cross-Presidency Priorities white paper, co-authored by the World Economic Forum and the Observer Research Foundation (ORF), underscores the importance of a cohesive digital strategy within the G20.

The gathering storm
Jul 20, 2013

The gathering storm

It is a troubled world that we live in today. However, so far India has been a sea of tranquility and it is too early to say if there is a link between the storm brewing on both flanks, but the security agencies, indeed the entire country, have a task on their hands.

The geopolitics of de-risking from China: Is India in for a win?
Feb 02, 2024

The geopolitics of de-risking from China: Is India in for a win?

As major economies attempt to de-risk from China, India can make the most of this opportunity by attracting global economic investments in varied sect

The great American divide before the 2024 elections
Oct 05, 2023

The great American divide before the 2024 elections

The deepening of the divide between and within the US’s principal political parties foreshadows a deeply fractured presidential election

The Growing Tech Focus of the Quad
Jul 09, 2022

The Growing Tech Focus of the Quad

Writing new rules of the road for critical and emerging technologies is a key imperative for the Quad.

The growing threat of lone-wolf terrorism
Dec 20, 2022

The growing threat of lone-wolf terrorism

GOI would have to develop a new counter-radicalisation programme and state-supervised counselling initiatives to curb lone-wolf terrorism

The Hiroshima Quad Summit 2023: Building on the momentum
Jun 06, 2023

The Hiroshima Quad Summit 2023: Building on the momentum

Contrary to media narratives, the 2023 Summit has firmly anchored the Quad and made it abundantly clear that the grouping is here to stay

The I2U2 Business Forum: West Asia’s institutional moment
Jul 12, 2023

The I2U2 Business Forum: West Asia’s institutional moment

By prioritising regional economic integration, the I2U2 Business Forum can serve as a strong foundation for a robust West Asian regional architecture

The implications of the enhancement of jurisdiction of BSF
Nov 15, 2021

The implications of the enhancement of jurisdiction of BSF

Would enhancing the police powers of BSF improve border security or would it avert BSF’s attention from its core responsibilities?

The implications of the PRC’s annexation of Taiwan for Japan, the US, and India
Jan 05, 2023

The implications of the PRC’s annexation of Taiwan for Japan, the US, and India

The Indo-Pacific states confront a real possibility of having China in their strategic backyard if the PRC successfully annex Taiwan in the coming yea

The importance of India’s defence partnership with Vietnam
Jun 28, 2022

The importance of India’s defence partnership with Vietnam

As Vietnam seeks to diversify its arms purchases, India could emerge as a potential exporter of defence equipment.

The importance of Indo-Omani relations
Jun 19, 2014

The importance of Indo-Omani relations

As major powers like China are deepening their military ties with the Gulf, the need for India to look beyond the imperatives of energy and maritime security is critical to its interests in Oman and the wider Gulf region.

The India-US defence industrial and technology cooperation: From aspirations to outcomes
Jun 28, 2023

The India-US defence industrial and technology cooperation: From aspirations to outcomes

There is a genuine desire on both sides to rapidly transform their defence partnership, but only time will tell if this intent translates into concret

The India-US Dialogues
Jan 24, 2015

The India-US Dialogues

The India-US Dialogues, hosted by Observer Research Foundation and Network 18 on January 24 with panels ranging from security and international relations to business and economics, encapsulating the range of issues on everyone's minds.

The Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative: Towards a Coherent Indo-Pacific Policy for India
Dec 23, 2020

The Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative: Towards a Coherent Indo-Pacific Policy for India

The Indo-Pacific region is increasingly being viewed as a global centre of gravity, both for its economic and demographic potential, and the security challenges that could frustrate those possibilities. India—as a champion of the principle of ‘Free and Open Indo-Pacific’ or FOIP—has initiated engagements with its partners in the region, such as the Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative (IPOI) that aims to ensure the security and stability of the

The Indo-Pacific Quest for the Quad’s Spirit
Jul 06, 2021

The Indo-Pacific Quest for the Quad’s Spirit

The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad)—comprising Australia, India, Japan and the US—has outlined a collective vision that recognises each country’s peculiarities in their approach to the Indo-Pacific while building upon the areas of convergence. Maritime security will continue to be a key pillar in this vision, although there is a shift towards making the Quad’s objectives more broad-based and relevant to the emerging global geopolit

The international politics of data: When control trumps protection
Oct 26, 2022

The international politics of data: When control trumps protection

The general impetus seems to be control of data flows by nation states and not protection of data and privacy

The Iran deal: Will it have an impact on US elections?
Jul 31, 2015

The Iran deal: Will it have an impact on US elections?

As the US Congress scrutinises the Iran accord, partisanship on Capitol Hill might reach new heights and it will capture headlines. Whether Congress passes the Iran deal or not, it will loom large in the election debates because of its connection to American and Israeli national security, though it is unlikely to be a real game changer in the elections.

The Karzai 'Kaper': What India Must Do With Afghanistan
Dec 16, 2013

The Karzai 'Kaper': What India Must Do With Afghanistan

Irrespective of an Afghan- US security pact, India should prepare itself for a scenario where it may have to look after its interests by itself. Kabul and New Delhi should also be looking at developing an understanding through which India can directly and independently engage with Pashtun tribal elders, provincial governors and even regional warlords to protect its investments.

The Kashmir that India Lost: A Historical Analysis of India’s Miscalculations on Gilgit Baltistan
Oct 20, 2021

The Kashmir that India Lost: A Historical Analysis of India’s Miscalculations on Gilgit Baltistan

Since 1947, parts of Jammu and Kashmir have been under Pakistan’s illegal occupation, with India referring to the area as ‘Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK)’. The stolen region comprises two ethnically and linguistically different regions: what Pakistan calls, ‘Azad Jammu and Kashmir’ or AJK, which includes parts of Kashmir and Jammu; and Gilgit Baltistan, which is the northern most tip of Kashmir and covers parts of Ladakh. While Gilgit

The Korea-Pacific Islands Summit: Widening the ambit of ROK-PIC ties
Jun 14, 2023

The Korea-Pacific Islands Summit: Widening the ambit of ROK-PIC ties

In light of the growing focus on the Pacific region, South Korea, alongside other nations, has ramped up bilateral ties with PICs by boosting developm

The Long Shadow of NATO-Russia Contestation on India
Apr 07, 2023

The Long Shadow of NATO-Russia Contestation on India

There are fundamental structural changes shaping the security landscape in Europe and they are also casting their shadow on Indian foreign policy and national security.

The Maldives says it will never allow China to use its land for military purposes
Sep 06, 2015

The Maldives says it will never allow China to use its land for military purposes

During an interaction at ORF, Maldives' delegation of senior officials reassured the audience that the Maldivian Constitution continues to restrict establishment of foreign military facilities and that Male will never compromise the security balance of the Indian Ocean.

The many meanings of Pokhran II
May 10, 2023

The many meanings of Pokhran II

The Pokhran II nuclear tests saw India re-imagining itself in the emerging global strategic landscape and the domestic establishment of a new politica