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A New Framework for a Secure Digital India
May 10, 2023

A New Framework for a Secure Digital India

The rapid pace of digitalisation poses new national security risks for countries like India, a country with over 700 million internet users. The multilayered digital ecosystem comprising of infrastructure, devices and applications is complex, and security threats evolve at a breakneck pace. This makes it difficult for states to develop an effective response to individual or organisational security threats. India therefore has often had to resort

A new frontier: Space warfare
Feb 27, 2024

A new frontier: Space warfare

Recent reports about Russia's experiments with new space technology have set off alarm bells in countries worldwide

A new geopolitical battlefield is emerging in the Pacific
May 22, 2023

A new geopolitical battlefield is emerging in the Pacific

The US and India no longer seem diffident about joining hands to counter the rising influence of China

A new nuclear non-proliferation initiative? The American Hypocrisy and Pakistan
Mar 17, 2004

A new nuclear non-proliferation initiative? The American Hypocrisy and Pakistan

In February 2004, President George Bush outlined his new nuclear non-proliferation approach, in his ¿seven points¿ speech at the National Defense University. It include the setting up of proliferation security initiative which will control and monitor not only shipments and nuclear transfer of material/technology but also will be empowered to take direct action against the violators of the law.

A path to NSG: India’s rise in the global nuclear order
Dec 24, 2017

A path to NSG: India’s rise in the global nuclear order

This research provides an empirical analysis of India’s limited, but transformative position in the global nuclear order. By examining India’s bid for a Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) membership, this paper makes three major arguments. First, India’s attempt to acquire veto power status through the NSG challenges classical revisionism in international relations theory. Second, India’s rise through the NSG is based on selective coalition-bu

A Primer on US and EU response to India’s Abrogation of Article 370
Oct 16, 2020

A Primer on US and EU response to India’s Abrogation of Article 370

This paper outlines the responses of the US Congress and European Union (EU) parliament to the Indian government’s abrogation of Article 370 of the Constitution and the surrounding events, including the communications lockdown in Kashmir. It notes contrasting responses: the US Congress showed a binary reaction of moderate and extreme calls to action, and the EU parliament honed a more expansive approach to address India’s apparent “democrat

A Proposed Architecture for a Central Bank Digital Currency for India
Jul 14, 2023

A Proposed Architecture for a Central Bank Digital Currency for India

Most central banks across the globe are today seized with the idea of cryptocurrency, with countries like Sweden and China already embarking on their pilot projects. This paper argues that most of the proposed architectures for a Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) are not designed to mimic the paper currency in its digital form. It proposes an architecture that largely retains all the properties of a paper currency, with only one limitation—i

A Refresh of the United Kingdom’s Integrated Review: What’s changed?
Mar 21, 2023

A Refresh of the United Kingdom’s Integrated Review: What’s changed?

Though IR2023 doesn’t bring any fundamental changes, it provides an important touch-up to its original and clearly reflects Britain’s refreshed th

A relevant BRICS: Reimagining global economic reform
Feb 27, 2024

A relevant BRICS: Reimagining global economic reform

As BRICS navigates the evolving global economic landscape, its trade, investment, and finance progress underscores its significance as a transformativ

A renewal of Chinese provocations in the West Philippine Sea
Oct 04, 2023

A renewal of Chinese provocations in the West Philippine Sea

The Philippines needs to strengthen defence and economic ties with like-minded countries to halt Beijing’s growing ambition in the South China Sea

A Second Quad in the Making in the Middle East?
Jun 01, 2023

A Second Quad in the Making in the Middle East?

Both the U.S. and India are exploring additional combinations of partnerships in the Middle East.

A sentinel at sea
Mar 08, 2024

A sentinel at sea

A new naval base in Lakshadweep is a signal to partners and adversaries that India remains the preeminent power in the Eastern Indian Ocean

A signal to China from America and two of its oldest major allies
Sep 20, 2021

A signal to China from America and two of its oldest major allies

US commitment to Asia-Pacific security is evident in the ‘Aukus pact’ that will see it share nuclear technology with Australia

A Survey of India-US Defence Cooperation
Mar 15, 2024

A Survey of India-US Defence Cooperation

Manoj Joshi, “A Survey of India-US Defence Cooperation,” ORF Special Report No. 224, March 2024, Observer Research Foundation.

A view from Kathmandu: Deciphering the Kalapani-Lipulekh conundrum
May 21, 2020

A view from Kathmandu: Deciphering the Kalapani-Lipulekh conundrum

Kalapani holds great geostrategic importance because of its location. However, Nepal has also safeguarded India’s genuine security concerns.

A world transformed
Dec 27, 2022

A world transformed

The Ukraine war will shape global politics for years to come

A year into Taliban rule, women live in fear
Sep 01, 2022

A year into Taliban rule, women live in fear

Despite glaring evidence of women's rights violations in Afghanistan, the international community remains silent.

A year of Ukraine Crisis: Where do EU-India relations stand?
Mar 14, 2023

A year of Ukraine Crisis: Where do EU-India relations stand?

As the ties between India and the EU continue to flourish, it is clear that the mutual need for greater security and economic cooperation may continue

Aadhaar fever: Unveiling secrets to secure India?
Dec 13, 2017

Aadhaar fever: Unveiling secrets to secure India?

Public angst against Aadhaar is not because of the technical effectiveness of the system, but the manner in which it is proposed to be used.

Abe leaves behind a formidable legacy
Jul 11, 2022

Abe leaves behind a formidable legacy

The former PM’s vision was focused on reaffirming Japan’s place in the world. He revitalised the economy, fought hard to reverse the nation’s pacifist stance and gave the world the construct of the Indo-Pacific

Abe Shinzo’s Indo-Pacific Legacy
Jul 16, 2022

Abe Shinzo’s Indo-Pacific Legacy

Abe’s role and legacy in transforming Japan’s role in global affairs, as well as in enhancing India-Japan ties, cannot be emphasized enough.

Abe wants decisive responses to China's ambitions near Japan waters
Sep 24, 2013

Abe wants decisive responses to China's ambitions near Japan waters

Japan's Prime Minister Shinzo Abe believes that his country needs quicker and more decisive responses to China's increasing maritime ambitions in waters near Japan, according to two Japanese security experts, Dr Marie Izuyama and Dr Hikaru Yamashita.

Abe-Modi meet: Is Japan the new Russia for India?
Sep 13, 2017

Abe-Modi meet: Is Japan the new Russia for India?

In an era of Asian strategic uncertainties and global power transition, India-Japan defence and security linkages have become particularly significant.

Abraham’s F-35: West Asia’s new peace and the politics around a fighter aircraft
Oct 26, 2020

Abraham’s F-35: West Asia’s new peace and the politics around a fighter aircraft

The F-35 saga in West Asia shows at some level what America’s dealings with the region is going to be.

Aerospace power: IAF’s doctrinal overview
Feb 10, 2023

Aerospace power: IAF’s doctrinal overview

The newly revised doctrine seeks to overcome the past inadequacy in the wider knowledge and leveraging of air power in India’s national security and

Afghan peace process must be Afghan-led and Afghan-owned
Apr 07, 2017

Afghan peace process must be Afghan-led and Afghan-owned

Terrorism and criminality are intertwined and fed by an illicit economy that destabilises Afghanistan and undermines regional security.

Afghan presidential elections: Implications and the road ahead
Apr 16, 2014

Afghan presidential elections: Implications and the road ahead

The voluminous participation by the Afghans in the elections, in which all major candidates asserted their desire to sign the Bilateral Security Agreement with the US, does not bode well for the Taliban, which describes signing of the BSA as "a huge crime".

Afghan situation likely to become complicated, says Chinese scholar
Apr 20, 2011

Afghan situation likely to become complicated, says Chinese scholar

Cautioning that the security situation in Afghanistan may become complicated in future, Chinese scholars said since both India and China have interests in that country, it could provide an opportunity for both to play a bigger role, setting aside the disagreements regarding Pakistan.

Afghan women under Taliban rule
Dec 27, 2021

Afghan women under Taliban rule

Since the fall of Kabul, women and girls are increasingly living under deplorable conditions in Afghanistan

Afghanistan and the India–Iran world view
Jul 25, 2022

Afghanistan and the India–Iran world view

India and Iran can revamp their worldview by using common identities and interests to carve a space for themselves in Afghanistan.

Afghanistan is now an Asian problem
Aug 08, 2022

Afghanistan is now an Asian problem

Area states should work together to address security concerns

Afghanistan's Uncertain Future
Mar 04, 2011

Afghanistan's Uncertain Future

Nearly ten years in Afghanistan and not a solution is sight makes for sad commentary for the ability of the US to solve its security problems or to force a solution on other regions. The year of reckoning may have been postponed from 2011 to 2014.

Afghanistan: Anxiety over possible economic collapse and Taliban take-over
May 25, 2013

Afghanistan: Anxiety over possible economic collapse and Taliban take-over

The security situation in Afghanistan is deteriorating and there is an overall sense of anxiety about a possible economic collapse and a Taliban takeover. The role of Pakistan and China will add to India's challenging task to ensure stability in Afghanistan in the next few years.

Afghanistan: Can the private sector be a driver for growth?
Jun 27, 2014

Afghanistan: Can the private sector be a driver for growth?

The year 2014 is, in many ways, the year of reckoning for Afghanistan which is undergoing three simultaneous transitions - security, political and economic. Unlike the first two, the economic transition has not had the advantage of clear deadlines and roadmaps and has suffered from lack of long term planning.

Afghanistan: Insurgency on the rise amidst international troop-drawdown
Oct 31, 2014

Afghanistan: Insurgency on the rise amidst international troop-drawdown

New Afghan President Ashraf Ghani fulfilled his promise of signing the Bilateral Security Agreement (BSA) with the U.S. and Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) with the NATO within 24 hours of taking office.

Africa is rising but so is hunger
May 27, 2019

Africa is rising but so is hunger

Higher growth and higher export earnings based on exports of natural resources will not help Africa achieve the zero-hunger goal.

Africa Summit: Between talk and action
Oct 27, 2015

Africa Summit: Between talk and action

During the UPA years, Delhi often proclaimed itself as a "net security provider" in the Indian Ocean and beyond. Modi has certainly put security cooperation at the very heart of his regional diplomacy. But the institutional framework in Delhi for such cooperation remains to be developed.

African Human Capital investment: Crucial to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals
May 25, 2023

African Human Capital investment: Crucial to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals

Multiple overlapping global crises—such as the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change-related natural disasters, and regional armed conflicts—have high

After a hot summer, the Valley is on the boil in winter too
Jan 14, 2019

After a hot summer, the Valley is on the boil in winter too

The operational success of the security forces is commendable, but their real test would be against the hard-core and well-trained JeM and LeT terrori

After Male's defence pact with US, India needs to check over-crowding of Indian Ocean strategic space
Sep 22, 2020

After Male's defence pact with US, India needs to check over-crowding of Indian Ocean strategic space

There is a real possibility of the neighbourhood Indian Ocean waters getting over-crowded sooner or later with defence pacts and multiple navies criss

After SL serial-blasts, Maldives displays cautious optimism
May 22, 2019

After SL serial-blasts, Maldives displays cautious optimism

In the aftermath of the Easter serial-attacks in Sri Lanka, the security forces in Maldives conducted an emergency response exercise, and border secur

After the NATO summit in Vilnius, what does the West have to offer Ukraine?
Jul 24, 2023

After the NATO summit in Vilnius, what does the West have to offer Ukraine?

The Vilnius Summit appears to be a transit point to more consequential future decisions even as it is unclear what security guarantees the G7 will pro

AI Chips for China Face Additional US Restrictions
Apr 08, 2024

AI Chips for China Face Additional US Restrictions

China has criticized the latest round of new rules by saying that it will “disrupt the international semiconductor market as well as cooperation among enterprises.”

AI Governance in India: Aspirations and Apprehensions
Dec 06, 2023

AI Governance in India: Aspirations and Apprehensions

The Observer Research Foundation’s first Tech Huddle was held on 23 November 2023 and focused on the governance of artificial intelligence (AI) in India, highlighting the rapid growth and adoption of AI as well as the complexities associated with developing regulatory frameworks for it. AI governance is in its infancy, both globally and in India, and grapples with issues such as the explainability of AI systems as well as the embedded biases, s

Aid and assistance in Afghanistan: Challenges and look ahead
Apr 01, 2023

Aid and assistance in Afghanistan: Challenges and look ahead

Figuring out how to support the Afghan people without strengthening the Taliban has been the challenge that is confronting the global community

AIIMS पर हुए साइबर हमले ने ‘भारत’ की महत्वपूर्ण कमज़ोरियों को उजागर किया है!
Dec 28, 2022

AIIMS पर हुए साइबर हमले ने ‘भारत’ की महत्वपूर्ण कमज़ोरियों को उजागर किया है!

डिजिटलीकरण की कोशिशों के चलते भारत आज साइबर हमलों का निश�