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China’s naval power and national prestige
Mar 08, 2018

China’s naval power and national prestige

Naval power lies at the centre of Chinese aspirations and coalesces energy security, maritime strategy, territorial integrity, naval nationalism, fore

China’s real intentions behind its ‘technical hold’ on Masood Azhar
Feb 21, 2019

China’s real intentions behind its ‘technical hold’ on Masood Azhar

Masood Azhar-led Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) is one of the many terror groups Beijing considers as important cogs for security and stability in its restive

China’s renewed push to tame religion
Sep 14, 2022

China’s renewed push to tame religion

The CCP uses both coercion and co-optation to ensure that organised religion remains aligned with its interests.

China’s Response to ‘De-risking’ Strategy of the West
Nov 07, 2023

China’s Response to ‘De-risking’ Strategy of the West

The annual parliamentary sittings of China’s National People’s Congress and the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference—usually held at the same time—are important political events, with speeches of leaders at the meetings reflecting the country’s policy trajectory. During the last sessions of both in March 2023, President Xi Jinping noted that western countries led by the United States (US) are seeking to “contain and en

China’s strategic ambitions seen in the Hambantota port in Sri Lanka
Jul 27, 2018

China’s strategic ambitions seen in the Hambantota port in Sri Lanka

New Delhi’s Indian Ocean woes aren’t confined to Sri Lanka. Across the Indian Ocean’s littorals, the Chinese navy has been preparing to establish a stronger security presence. On Pakistan’s Makran coast, the PLAN has deployed regularly, including at Gwadar, also constructed by CMPorts. Earlier this year, the PLA is said to have initiated talks with the Pakistan military for another outpost at Jiwani.

China’s submarine activities in the Bay of Bengal: Considerations for India
Aug 30, 2023

China’s submarine activities in the Bay of Bengal: Considerations for India

In light of China’s growing activities in the Bay region, India needs to develop its underwater naval capacities, enhance defence cooperation, and i

China’s terror dilemma in CPEC: A Xinjiang strategy?
Aug 17, 2023

China’s terror dilemma in CPEC: A Xinjiang strategy?

This brief aims to examine one of China’s possible responses to the various extremist and terrorist activities that plague the internal security of Pakistan, given the necessity of securing its USD 62 billion investment in the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). Given that Pakistan is failing to control this problem, China will have to take measures of its own to secure CPEC. The response of China could possibly be inspired by its strateg

China’s Two-Front Conundrum: A Perspective on the India-China Border Situation
Mar 07, 2023

China’s Two-Front Conundrum: A Perspective on the India-China Border Situation

China’s actions in Ladakh since 2020 are in violation of common understandings and have brought the focus of bilateral relationship back to the issue of the border. This paper seeks to contribute to the understanding of China’s behaviour along the India-China border by exploring a fresh perspective that explains the instability along the border as a function of China’s two-front conundrum. It makes a historical account of past events to arg

China’s ‘spy ship’ poses a dilemma for New Delhi
Aug 20, 2022

China’s ‘spy ship’ poses a dilemma for New Delhi

India’s security officials worry that China would use the ship’s visit as a precedent for future deployments by Chinese warships to Sri Lanka.

Chinese anxiety over “Peak China” and how it may impact China-India ties
Mar 01, 2024

Chinese anxiety over “Peak China” and how it may impact China-India ties

Although China officially is making light of it, the “Peak China” discourse has been negatively impacting China’s domestic situation

Chinese dam on Yarlung Tsangpo/Brahmaputra: Should India be concerned?
Dec 01, 2020

Chinese dam on Yarlung Tsangpo/Brahmaputra: Should India be concerned?

The contribution emerging from the Chinese boundary to the immediate point in the Indian boundary cannot be stated to be negligible.

Chinese ship at Lankan port: More to it than meets the eye
Aug 11, 2022

Chinese ship at Lankan port: More to it than meets the eye

India wants Sri Lanka to find out the ‘real purpose’ of the ship’s visit, implying that it was open to evidence-based arguments.

Chinese ships in Sri Lanka: An irritant for India
Nov 16, 2023

Chinese ships in Sri Lanka: An irritant for India

The presence of Shi Yan-6 in Sri Lanka has become a cause of concern for other countries in the Indian Ocean

Chinese Spy Ship and Lanka’s tilt towards Beijing
Aug 17, 2022

Chinese Spy Ship and Lanka’s tilt towards Beijing

The enthusiastic welcome to Yang Wang 5 depicts the Chinese agency in Sri Lanka ignoring the security concerns of India.

Civil Liabilities for Nuclear Damages Bill 2010 – The Way Forward
Jul 31, 2023

Civil Liabilities for Nuclear Damages Bill 2010 – The Way Forward

The oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and the Bhopal tragedy have brought back into focus the issue of industrial accidents, contractual liabilities and questions of operator liability. The Bhopal tragedy which is closer to Indian hearts has engaged the Indian Government and Courts for over twenty six years and yet a solution acceptable to victims and other stakeholders is proving to be elusive. Every step from the Government and the Courts has bee

Climate change and the Maldivian economy: Will it capsize or sail through?
May 05, 2023

Climate change and the Maldivian economy: Will it capsize or sail through?

A close study of how climate change influences the Maldivian economy will help analyse its adaptation needs and identify future opportunities

Closing the gap: A doctrinal & capability appraisal of the IAF & the PLAAF
May 02, 2018

Closing the gap: A doctrinal & capability appraisal of the IAF & the PLAAF

A review of existing and future capability is essential to offer a holistic appraisal of current and predicted trajectory of the IAF vs. PLAAF discour

Clouds of uncertainty over Afghanistan
Aug 08, 2019

Clouds of uncertainty over Afghanistan

There can be no peace unless the Taliban and Afghan security forces de-escalate

Col. Gaddafi's terror and India's UN vote
Apr 06, 2011

Col. Gaddafi's terror and India's UN vote

With Gaddafi around, there will be no peace in the Arab region. Africa will also be badly affected. That is why Gaddafi's Foreign and Interior Ministers and several Libyan Ambassadors deserted him. What high moral dictate or compelling necessity led to India's neutral stance in the vote on Security Council Resolution 1973?

Collision risks in outer space due to mega-constellations
Oct 18, 2021

Collision risks in outer space due to mega-constellations

The sporadic and uncontrolled launch of thousands of new mega-constellations put outer space security and safety at risk.

Colombo correction
Apr 01, 2014

Colombo correction

The UPA's policy failures on Bangladesh and Sri Lanka have generated much bemoaning in Delhi's national security establishment about the breakdown of the rules of the republic that made the conduct of foreign policy the sole responsibility of the Centre. A closer look reveals that it is not the states that are exercising a veto over foreign policy decisions.

Conference Summary: ORF-CSIS Dialogue on East Asia
Mar 17, 2005

Conference Summary: ORF-CSIS Dialogue on East Asia

Participants from India and the United States shared their respective viewpoints on the political, economic, and security environment to identify areas of mutual interest in East Asia. The discussion focused on identifying current and future challenges & opportunities in the bilateral relationship

Conflict in Syria and the possibility of peace
Dec 01, 2014

Conflict in Syria and the possibility of peace

THE United Nations Security Council (UNSC) achieved the almost impossible recently by adopting a unanimous resolution on providing access to humanitarian aid to Syria, breaking a deadlock that pitted Russia and China against the Western powers.

Confronting India’s nuclear regulation challenge
Mar 25, 2020

Confronting India’s nuclear regulation challenge

India should recognise that no country has a completely fool-proof mechanism and it should not get excessively defensive about its nuclear security policies and practices.

Connectivity and Commerce Imperatives in the Indo-Pacific
Jan 27, 2022

Connectivity and Commerce Imperatives in the Indo-Pacific

In recent times, the centre of gravity for global trade and economic activities has shifted to the Indo-Pacific and, consequently, there is heightened competition between global powers that have stakes in the region. The importance of connectivity has therefore come to the forefront, covering domains like digitisation with interoperable regimes comprising data protection and cyber security, along with cross-border infrastructures that need attent

Contra massive retaliation: Possible trajectories of a flexible response deterrent strategy for India
Aug 06, 2018

Contra massive retaliation: Possible trajectories of a flexible response deterrent strategy for India

The extant scholarship on India’s nuclear doctrine, while problematising the credibility deficit in the strategy of massive retaliation, fails to provide a policy alternative. This study examines the alternative of flexible response available for India and makes an assessment of whether it provides a solution to this problem in India’s nuclear doctrine. Even when flexible response is often cited in India’s strategic circles as a likely alte

Cooperation sans ambiguity: Can BIMSTEC ride the strategic tide in the Bay of Bengal?
Dec 28, 2020

Cooperation sans ambiguity: Can BIMSTEC ride the strategic tide in the Bay of Bengal?

The concerns identified by BIMSTEC reveal that the organisation restricts itself to engaging in only those security challenges which are non-state cen

Copter attack: grim reminder of challenges in Afghanistan
Aug 08, 2011

Copter attack: grim reminder of challenges in Afghanistan

While President Barack Obama is pursuing his two-pronged approach in Afghanistan that involves talking to the Taliban and handling over the security to the Afghan National Army (ANA).

Coronavirus pandemic and cyclone will leave many Indians hungry and undernourished
Jul 16, 2020

Coronavirus pandemic and cyclone will leave many Indians hungry and undernourished

Undernourished people with weak immune systems and those with co-morbidities are strongly linked to adverse COVID-19 outcomes.

Countering Disinformation and Hate Speech Online: Regulation and User Behavioural Change
Jan 25, 2021

Countering Disinformation and Hate Speech Online: Regulation and User Behavioural Change

Social media platforms facilitate the sharing of information and enhance connectivity and civic engagement. At the same time, however, they are vulnerable to abuse by malicious actors who use the channels to spread misinformation and hateful and divisive content. Regulatory reforms must seek to align the utility of social media platforms with the welfare of citizens, while safeguarding the right to free speech. This paper explores the regulatory

COVID-19 and migrant workers in India: Reinstating ethics of care as state policy
Apr 27, 2020

COVID-19 and migrant workers in India: Reinstating ethics of care as state policy

Migrant workers have perennially remained at the socio-economic margins of our society silently serving as the instrumental labour force of the urban

Covid-19 and unemployment: Implications for child labour
Jul 31, 2020

Covid-19 and unemployment: Implications for child labour

Poverty is the root cause of child labour, which, despite being a priority for a succession of Indian governments, is yet to be eradicated.

Covid-19: An opportunity to redesign India’s formal-informal economy dynamics
Oct 15, 2020

Covid-19: An opportunity to redesign India’s formal-informal economy dynamics

The pandemic will bring in more of the unorganised sector in the formal fold by means of the economic stimulus announced, and increase the government�

Crisis in the Middle East Amidst Global Disorder
Oct 18, 2023

Crisis in the Middle East Amidst Global Disorder

The unprecedented scale of the Hamas attack has shaken Israel and the consequences are likely to shake the Middle East.

Cyber Arms Race in Space: Exploring India’s Next Steps
Sep 14, 2023

Cyber Arms Race in Space: Exploring India’s Next Steps

Indias reliance on outer space has become critical in its social and economic growthstories in addition to its transformative impact in the national security context. With growingreliance comes vulnerability to adversarial attempts to harm Indias capabilities, particularlyfrom the new threat of cyber warfare. Even as countries including India have debated the need todevelop certain counter-space capabilities, such as demonstration of an ASAT capa

Cyber attacks difficult to be eliminated: Experts
Feb 11, 2014

Cyber attacks difficult to be eliminated: Experts

Cyber attacks are not a security challenge that can easily be eliminated. No kind of infrastructure is absolutely impregnable and the adverse impacts can at best be minimised by emphasising on risk containments, according to experts.

Cyber Attacks | Pakistan emerges as China’s proxy against India
Feb 15, 2022

Cyber Attacks | Pakistan emerges as China’s proxy against India

India needs to effectively counter the menace of China-Pakistan cyber collaboration as it has not just national security implications, but indeed implications for India’s democracy as a whole

Cyber capacity-building in ASEAN: Importance of confidence-building measures
Oct 18, 2016

Cyber capacity-building in ASEAN: Importance of confidence-building measures

The ASEAN Agreement aims to promote security and stability in cyberspace consistent with norms of responsible state behaviour

Cyber debate in India: Finding a middle way
Nov 14, 2013

Cyber debate in India: Finding a middle way

The India Conference on Cyber Governance and Cyber Security, organised recently by ORF and FICCI, is the beginning of a strong forum that can debate India's policies, help mould its strategy and simultaneously address global challenges.

Cyber Mercenaries: A Call to Action for the Quad
Sep 20, 2023

Cyber Mercenaries: A Call to Action for the Quad

This paper investigates, in the context of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue or Quad, the burgeoning threats posed by cyber mercenaries acting as proxies for revisionist states bent on destabilising the institutions and societies of adversary nations. The paper offers essential definitions of what comprises cybersecurity threats, including cyber mercenaries, and delineates current trends. Drawing on open-source intelligence and insights from cy

Cyber Mercenaries: The Failures of Current Responses and the Imperative of International Collaboration
Dec 11, 2023

Cyber Mercenaries: The Failures of Current Responses and the Imperative of International Collaboration

Digital adoption, hastened globally by the COVID-19 epidemic, brought along with it both benefits and threats, including concerns of safety and security of the cyberspace. Current geopolitical dynamics, ongoing strategic and economic disputes, as well as attempts by authoritarian regimes to preserve power have allowed companies with malicious intent—known as ‘cyber mercenaries’—to develop and deploy offensive cyber capabilities. The tools

Cyber Norms: लोकतांत्रिक इंटरनेट व्यवस्था के लिए साइबर स्पेस के मानक!
Jan 09, 2023

Cyber Norms: लोकतांत्रिक इंटरनेट व्यवस्था के लिए साइबर स्पेस के मानक!

इंटरनेट को ‘वाइल्ड वेस्ट’ मान लेना गलती है. अब वक्त आ गया �

Cyber Sovereignty: In Search of Definitions, Exploring Implications
Aug 17, 2023

Cyber Sovereignty: In Search of Definitions, Exploring Implications

The increasing dependence on the internet across the spectrum is pushing some states to adopt measures to exert their sovereignty over cyberspace. Certain global events have also acted as a catalyst for states to pursue cyber sovereignty. The involvement of multiple stakeholders and the borderless character of the virtual world have made sovereignty a complex affair in this domain. This brief seeks to illuminate the concept of ‘cyber so

Data flow and privacy: G20 अध्यक्ष के रूप में भारत की डेटा प्रवाह और गोपनीयता में भूमिका!
Nov 11, 2022

Data flow and privacy: G20 अध्यक्ष के रूप में भारत की डेटा प्रवाह और गोपनीयता में भूमिका!

भारत को यह सुनिश्चित करना चाहिए कि data के सीमा पार प्रवाह प�

Data free flow with trust: Is there a solution in sight?
Jan 28, 2023

Data free flow with trust: Is there a solution in sight?

2023 could be a monumental year for facilitating DFFT as more and more countries are moving away from the concept of blanket data localisation

Data Protection: भारत के डेटा संरक्षण के प्रयासों में दुविधाएं
Dec 29, 2022

Data Protection: भारत के डेटा संरक्षण के प्रयासों में दुविधाएं

पिछले बिल की तुलना में डेटा संरक्षण का नया विधेयक (DPDPB 2022) ज़�

Data को लेकर अंतर्राष्ट्रीय राजनीति; सुरक्षा को चकमा देती नियंत्रण
Jan 10, 2023

Data को लेकर अंतर्राष्ट्रीय राजनीति; सुरक्षा को चकमा देती नियंत्रण

वैश्विक स्तर पर अलग-अलग सरकारें आम तौर पर नये क़ानूनों और

Debate on Space Code of Conduct: An Indian Perspective
Jul 23, 2023

Debate on Space Code of Conduct: An Indian Perspective

As the debate for a Space Code of Conduct gains momentum, there is a need to frame a code that is acceptable to all space-faring nations. This Paper assesses the concerns of Asian countries, especially India, on the code proposed by the European Union