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A conceptual analysis of Sino-Indian space deterrence and space warfighting
Apr 24, 2017

A conceptual analysis of Sino-Indian space deterrence and space warfighting

This paper evaluates the importance of a space military strategy for India against China. It argues that in light of China’s advances in space weapons, New Delhi needs to seriously consider developing at least a limited menu of space weapons and integrate them into India’s defence posture. It draws on conceptual literature on nuclear deterrence, air power and sea power to show that space weapons, at least some variants, are usable military in

A guidebook on Pacific diplomacy: India looks to the ‘Far East’
Jul 24, 2023

A guidebook on Pacific diplomacy: India looks to the ‘Far East’

Since his assumption to power in 2014, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi has been slowly stretching the arm of the country’s foreign policy into Pacific waters in furtherance of the ‘Act East’ policy. While India’s relationship with the Pacific island states (read, not Australia and New Zealand) is quite unestablished, Modi is attempting to set the foundations for prosperous future cooperation. In the form of a guidebook for India on Pa

A path to NSG: India’s rise in the global nuclear order
Dec 24, 2017

A path to NSG: India’s rise in the global nuclear order

This research provides an empirical analysis of India’s limited, but transformative position in the global nuclear order. By examining India’s bid for a Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) membership, this paper makes three major arguments. First, India’s attempt to acquire veto power status through the NSG challenges classical revisionism in international relations theory. Second, India’s rise through the NSG is based on selective coalition-bu

A Primer on US and EU response to India’s Abrogation of Article 370
Oct 16, 2020

A Primer on US and EU response to India’s Abrogation of Article 370

This paper outlines the responses of the US Congress and European Union (EU) parliament to the Indian government’s abrogation of Article 370 of the Constitution and the surrounding events, including the communications lockdown in Kashmir. It notes contrasting responses: the US Congress showed a binary reaction of moderate and extreme calls to action, and the EU parliament honed a more expansive approach to address India’s apparent “democrat

A.I. in the Chinese military: Current initiatives and the implications for India
Feb 11, 2020

A.I. in the Chinese military: Current initiatives and the implications for India

The different service arms of China’s armed forces are all undergoing substantial transformation, including exploring the possibilities of integrating Artificial Intelligence (AI) to boost their combat power and effectiveness especially in a time of war. This paper evaluates the significance and potential of AI in improving China’s military capabilities. Chinese official documents and their enunciation of military doctrine indicate that the c

Africa and COVID19: Impact, Response, and Challenges to Recovery
Sep 28, 2020

Africa and COVID19: Impact, Response, and Challenges to Recovery

The COVID-19 outbreak poses immense challenges to Africa’s resilience. The pandemic’s economic fallout, caused by disruptions in global and regional value chains and a slump in commodity prices, can derail the progress which the continent has recorded in recent years. Despite the bleak forecasts, however, African countries have managed to mount a concerted response to the pandemic. This paper examines the extent of the economic and health imp

Air Pollution in Delhi: Filling the Policy Gaps
Dec 18, 2020

Air Pollution in Delhi: Filling the Policy Gaps

Delhi, a Union Territory that is home to India’s capital, New Delhi, is among the world’s urban agglomerations with the most toxic air. The magnitude of air pollution is massive. It causes devastating impacts on people’s health, the city’s environment, and economic well-being. Despite overwhelming evidence of the severity of air pollution and its consequences, however, India’s policy measures remain weak. This paper identifies the most

An assessment of India’s readiness for tracking SDG targets on Health and Nutrition
Jul 24, 2023

An assessment of India’s readiness for tracking SDG targets on Health and Nutrition

India’s endeavour to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in a well-defined and time-bound manner is critical for national and global development. This paper examines India’s data availability to assess the SDGs related to health and nutrition. While India is still facing severe challenges of generating disaggregated information on mortality and cause-specific deaths, the desired data on nutrition and healthcare utilisation are la

Assessing the Merger of Delhi’s Municipal Corporations
Jul 20, 2023

Assessing the Merger of Delhi’s Municipal Corporations

In April, the Delhi Municipal Corporation (Amendment) Act, 2022, merged the North, South, and East Delhi municipal corporations into a single urban local body (ULB) called the Delhi Municipal Corporation. The unification is expected to lead to better service delivery, greater financial strength, economies of scale, and eliminate administrative duplication. However, the Act does not outline the functional and financial domains of ULBs and aspects

Breathing new life into BIMSTEC: Challenges and imperatives
Apr 27, 2020

Breathing new life into BIMSTEC: Challenges and imperatives

This paper explores the various opportunities and challenges of the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation or BIMSTEC, a unique inter-regional grouping composed of aspiring member countries from South Asia and Southeast Asia. While the grouping has massive potential to contribute to regional cooperation, this paper explores the capabilities of the organisation in terms of meeting the expectations of renewed

Building Resilience in India’s Power Sector
Jul 21, 2023

Building Resilience in India’s Power Sector

India’s power sector requires sustained efforts to achieve the power generating capacity target of approximately 1.2 terawatts by 2047. It needs such capacity to meet the demands of economic growth and achieve the Sustainable Development Goal 7 of providing universal electricity access. At the same time, the country also needs to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to meet commitments to global climate action agreements. This paper revi

Centre-State Relations in India: Time for a New Framework
Apr 09, 2015

Centre-State Relations in India: Time for a New Framework

This paper assesses the major shifts that have occurred in the country's federal system in the last three decades. It also provides a list of recommendations to improve Centre-state relations in India.

China in Afghanistan: Security, regional standing, and status
Oct 24, 2017

China in Afghanistan: Security, regional standing, and status

With the traditional liberal order appearing agile, new questions on international security and peacemaking have come to the fore. In the current context, global players are according Afghanistan greater strategic importance. As NATO troops continue to make headway in that region into the safe havens of ISIS, and with US posturing purportedly getting more robust, China’s role in Afghanistan merits scrutiny. Even though China’s involvement, mi

China’s Military-Civil Fusion Strategy, the US Response, and Implications for India
Jul 21, 2023

China’s Military-Civil Fusion Strategy, the US Response, and Implications for India

Military modernisation was the fourth and last of Deng Xiaoping’s ‘Four Modernisations’. Even before the third modernisation got underway—that of science and technology—China began using commercial technologies to advance its military capabilities. This strategy has gained salience since Xi Jinping came to power in 2012 and made it the state’s key goal to transform the PLA into a “world-class military”. Military-Civil Fusi

Commercial space mining: Economic and legal implications
Sep 24, 2017

Commercial space mining: Economic and legal implications

The United States and Luxembourg have adopted domestic space laws granting certain legal rights to space mining companies. These moves have initiated a debate on the future of this industry, as well as the passing of relevant laws governing outer space and its resources. This paper makes an assessment of commercial space mining activities in the broader context of the emerging space economy. It finds that entrepreneurs are increasingly looking at

Contra massive retaliation: Possible trajectories of a flexible response deterrent strategy for India
Aug 06, 2018

Contra massive retaliation: Possible trajectories of a flexible response deterrent strategy for India

The extant scholarship on India’s nuclear doctrine, while problematising the credibility deficit in the strategy of massive retaliation, fails to provide a policy alternative. This study examines the alternative of flexible response available for India and makes an assessment of whether it provides a solution to this problem in India’s nuclear doctrine. Even when flexible response is often cited in India’s strategic circles as a likely alte

COVID19 and Pakistan: The Economic Fallout
Jun 04, 2020

COVID19 and Pakistan: The Economic Fallout

Pakistan has been one of the countries worst affected by COVID-19, with the economic disruption caused by the pandemic exacerbating an already existing crisis. This paper discusses how the public health crisis has affected some of the most critical sectors of the Pakistani economy. While the government has implemented some mitigation measures, they are inadequate to counter the impact of the pandemic. The paper analyses the likely fallout of a ne

Crossroads of Artificial Intelligence: Higher Education and Research in India and China
Nov 11, 2020

Crossroads of Artificial Intelligence: Higher Education and Research in India and China

This paper offers a comparative study of India and China in higher-education reforms for the development of talent in artificial intelligence (AI), and in AI research. It analyses the AI development plans and strategies of the two countries, their automation readiness index, talent retention, and research output. The analysis is based on both primary and secondary sources including interviews, government and industry reports, and recognised ranki

Deradicalisation as Counterterrorism Strategy: The Experience of Indian States
Aug 04, 2020

Deradicalisation as Counterterrorism Strategy: The Experience of Indian States

Various Indian states have attempted to implement their respective deradicalisation programmes to counter radicalised thought amongst those identified as being at-risk, as well as those contemplating on joining, or are returning after having joined terror groups. Maharashtra and Kerala, for example, claim that their programmes are a success. Yet little is known regarding the structure of these deradicalisation programmes, their implementation, th

Domestic Violence and Women’s Health in India: Insights from NFHS-4
Jan 21, 2022

Domestic Violence and Women’s Health in India: Insights from NFHS-4

Across the globe, more than 730 million women report ever having experienced some form of gender-based violence; those in low- and lower-middle-income countries are disproportionately affected. In the past two years, the COVID-19 pandemic has only increased the incidence of violence suffered by women in the hands of their intimate partners, owing to heightened stresses of loss of livelihood, disruption of social and protective networks, a

Drones and India: Exploring Policy and Regulatory Challenges Posed by Civilian Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Feb 06, 2015

Drones and India: Exploring Policy and Regulatory Challenges Posed by Civilian Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

This paper explores the ways in which UAVs are increasingly integrating themselves in civilian life, outlines the policy implications of this rapid proliferation, and identifies specific policy blind spots India must address.

Dynamics of US Force Transformation
Dec 25, 2006

Dynamics of US Force Transformation

In September 2002, the Bush administration officially introduced its national security strategy report. In response to the devastating attacks on the epicentre of America's financial and defence establishment, President Bush outlined the fundamental tenets of a strategy that was authored to contend with changes caused due to the "profound transformation" in the current security environment. President Bush proclaimed that, in order to protect Amer

East Meets East: An Assessment of the Proposed Chennai-Vladivostok Maritime Corridor
Dec 07, 2020

East Meets East: An Assessment of the Proposed Chennai-Vladivostok Maritime Corridor

In 2019, India and Russia announced their intent to connect the ports in their respective cities, Chennai and Vladivostok. One year on, the project remains only on paper. This paper explores the economic and strategic viability of this proposed maritime connectivity corridor. While not purporting to be a feasibility study, this analysis seeks to examine the potential benefits and pitfalls of the proposed link and its place in the Indo-Russia stra

Estimating the Productivity of India’s Agricultural Waters: Towards Water and Nutritional Security Through Crop Choices
Jul 21, 2023

Estimating the Productivity of India’s Agricultural Waters: Towards Water and Nutritional Security Through Crop Choices

This paper presents an approach towards promoting nutritional security on one hand, and water security on the other, in an integrated framework. Using econometric models, it delineates water use efficiency on the basis of calorific estimates of the productivity of agricultural water use in the context of various crops. Based on the estimated marginal product of water across the various crops, the paper finds that alternative crops such as maize a

Exports and e-commerce in India
Oct 24, 2017

Exports and e-commerce in India

This paper attempts to make a contribution in the context of the recent push in making India an e-empowered economy for promoting exports. The study stems from the premise that exports respond significantly to the costs associated with breaking into foreign markets and sustaining in those markets, whereas e-commerce offers a ready platform to minimise such costs. The empirical exercise focuses on export decision and export intensity, after adjust

Fiscal restructuring and its impact on nutrition financing in India
Aug 24, 2017

Fiscal restructuring and its impact on nutrition financing in India

In 2015, the United Nations agreed to end hunger in all forms by 2030. While India has committed itself as a stakeholder in the 2030 agenda for development, its own record in reducing hunger has been less than satisfactory. Latest data from the National Family Health Survey-4 show an improvement in nutritional indicators of children under-five. However, there are huge differences across states and social groups. Nutrition should thus remain high

Formulating open-space policies for India’s cities: The case of Mumbai
Apr 22, 2020

Formulating open-space policies for India’s cities: The case of Mumbai

Over the past decade, Mumbai’s civil society has raised concerns over the way in which the municipal corporation appears to be prioritising rapid development at the cost of the city’s public space. Indeed, the city has lost significant areas of its open spaces owing to various reasons, among them archaic policies, unrealistic goals, and the labyrinthine division of power and jurisdiction between the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation and othe

From Buyer to Builder: The Indian Navy’s Rocky Road to Self-Reliance
Sep 10, 2020

From Buyer to Builder: The Indian Navy’s Rocky Road to Self-Reliance

This paper evaluates deficiencies in India’s naval shipbuilding programme, and identifies factors that adversely impact naval warship construction in the country. It argues that despite considerable effort, India’s shipbuilding endeavours continue to suffer from systemic deficits that cannot be addressed through ad hoc policy interventions and short-term solutions. Through an assessment of strengths and weaknesses of India’s defence shipyar

From Policy to Practice: Charting a Path for Floodplain Zoning in India
May 25, 2020

From Policy to Practice: Charting a Path for Floodplain Zoning in India

Floods are a recurrent phenomenon in many parts of India, and human and economic losses are consistently rising with increased exposure to the hazard. These losses can be significantly reduced by eliminating the encroachment on floodplains and regulating the land use within it through floodplain zoning, a widely accepted and effective non-structural policy measure. Despite its benefits, floodplain zoning has not been widely adopted in India, main

From Rio to Paris: India in global climate politics
Dec 24, 2017

From Rio to Paris: India in global climate politics

This paper analyses India’s participation in more than two decades of global climate politics. India has transitioned from a protest voice on the fringes of global climate policy to one that is actively shaping international efforts to combat climate change. Analysis of the drivers behind India’s negotiating positions on climate change thus far has focused on the competing motives of equity and co-benefits, which has however been insufficient

From ‘Pivot to Asia’ to Trump’s ARIA: What drives the US’ Current Asia policy?
Feb 19, 2020

From ‘Pivot to Asia’ to Trump’s ARIA: What drives the US’ Current Asia policy?

After President Donald Trump’s 2017 visit to Asia, the Indo-Pacific region assumed greater significance in the United States’ foreign policy calculus, as articulated in the ‘Indo-Pacific Strategy Report’ released by the US Department of Defence. On 31 December 2018, Trump passed the Asia Reassurance Initiative Act (ARIA), which authorises US$1.5 billion in spending for a range of US programmes in East Asia and Southeast Asia to “develop

Fulfilling the SDG on Zero Hunger: A Progress Report on BIMSTEC Nations
Nov 02, 2020

Fulfilling the SDG on Zero Hunger: A Progress Report on BIMSTEC Nations

The countries of BIMSTEC, or the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation, are working to translate the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) into action plans to ensure access to adequate and nutritious food. They are transforming their food systems based on their priorities and capacities to fulfill, in particular, the 2030 SDG Goal 2 that aims to “end hunger, achieve food security, and promote sustainable

Gender-Responsive Budgeting in India, Bangladesh and Rwanda: A Comparison
Jul 22, 2020

Gender-Responsive Budgeting in India, Bangladesh and Rwanda: A Comparison

Gender-responsive budgeting (GRB) is a targeted fiscal instrument that several developing countries have cemented into their growth plans. GRB is used to ensure that policy prescriptions to alleviate gender inequality translate into outputs by linking them to budgetary allocations. Although the concept was introduced in India, Bangladesh and Rwanda at around the same time (the early 2000s), the three countries have followed different routes and a

Gender-Responsive Budgeting: A task ahead for India’s 15th finance commission
Aug 10, 2018

Gender-Responsive Budgeting: A task ahead for India’s 15th finance commission

Gender equality is a fundamental human right. This principle is also found in the SDG 2030 Agenda where its signatories, including India, reaffirmed their commitment to mainstreaming gender development and ensuring equal representation of women in political and economic decision-making. This paper outlines gender-budgeting norms for resource allocations as an essential prerequisite for India to achieve progress towards the SDG-5 on gender equalit

Governing the Ganges and Brahmaputra: Beyond Reductionist Hydrology
Sep 18, 2020

Governing the Ganges and Brahmaputra: Beyond Reductionist Hydrology

This paper argues that the challenges in the governance of two Himalayan river systems, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, emerge largely from crucial information and knowledge gaps. The dominance of the paradigm of “reductionist hydrology” solely based on structural interventions has resulted in the lack of recognition of the long-run costs incurred through ecosystem damages and water conflicts at various levels. The knowledge gaps—including

Home Enquiry and the Rehabilitation of Trafficking Survivors
Dec 02, 2015

Home Enquiry and the Rehabilitation of Trafficking Survivors

Human traffcking remains a highly acute issue in India and rehabilitation efforts must be stepped up to make sure that those rescued from these hazardous situations are given a chance to rejoin mainstream society. However, various loopholes exist in the judicial and executive processes involved in the country’s rehabilitation systems. This paper describes such problems evident in the process of home enquiry for the rescued victims: fraugh

Hong Kong’s National Security Law: Implications for India
Oct 08, 2020

Hong Kong’s National Security Law: Implications for India

China has enacted a National Security Law for the special administrative region of Hong Kong. The provisions of the law can be used to curb peaceful dissent and enhance Beijing’s control over the region. It has the potential to not only change Hong Kong’s legal and political autonomy, but also alter its status as a global financial centre. This paper offers an overview of the national security law and its implications for the ‘one country,

How fares India in healthcare? A sub-national analysis
Feb 25, 2020

How fares India in healthcare? A sub-national analysis

India’s geographical landscape is vast, cultural differences can be sharp, and income disparities are stark in certain regions. Access to healthcare, therefore, is varied and the on-ground gaps and challenges are complex. The NITI Aayog Health Index is an attempt by the current government to formulate a mechanism to monitor at the sub-national level the country’s performance in improving healthcare. This paper uses the findings of the Health