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India could use its historic free speech judgment to reset its position on internet governance. Will it?
Apr 21, 2015

India could use its historic free speech judgment to reset its position on internet governance. Will it?

India must play a leadership role in the development of global Internet policy. The government needs to respond to the demands of its citizens and reset its position on international Internet governance issues, in line with the progressive developments that have occurred at home. In essence, India should be doing a better job at linking the local to the global.

India in the Era of ‘Silicon Diplomacy’
Aug 17, 2023

India in the Era of ‘Silicon Diplomacy’

The global shortage in semiconductors that occurred during the Covid-19 pandemic, resulted in heavy losses for many economic sectors. The fragility of the supply chain and the innate dependencies within, have made semiconductor collaboration essential to maintain the industry’s efficiency. This brief examines how semiconductors have become a fulcrum for building potential technology alliances. It outlines ongoing diplomatic initiatives

India in the final frontier: Strategy, policy and industry
Jan 29, 2020

India in the final frontier: Strategy, policy and industry

This report builds on the discussions during the 5th ORF Kalpana Chawla Space Policy Dialogue 2019 organised by ORF. The report has three sections: the first covers questions of strategy in space; the second discusses policy dimensions; and the final one explores the role of private enterprises in the space domain. While some sections may include global perspectives, the report views the various challenges in space primarily from an Indian standp

India is dangerously close to becoming an also-ran
Sep 18, 2019

India is dangerously close to becoming an also-ran

The Modi government can choose to be part of a massive Indo-Pacific trading bloc, or succumb to isolationism. China complicates the choice.

India must watch Chinese plans when opting between BBIM & BCIM
Dec 11, 2015

India must watch Chinese plans when opting between BBIM & BCIM

India is faced with choices of being part of two regional blocs: BBIN and BCIM. In both blocs, India has Bangladesh as a common partner. The prime motives for being a member of the regional blocs are essentially economic, and strategically political.

India needs to expand depth and scope of dialogue with Africa: MPs
Mar 21, 2013

India needs to expand depth and scope of dialogue with Africa: MPs

India's economic cooperation with many of the African countries is booming but some parliamentarians from Africa think that to make the cooperation more constructive, India should try to make the local population also stake holders.

India not ready for RCEP
Dec 28, 2020

India not ready for RCEP

Indian growth over the last three decades has been largely consumption driven, but consumption has been hit by lockdown.

India putting China on its backfoot in Nepal
Apr 28, 2023

India putting China on its backfoot in Nepal

India’s economic diplomacy towards Nepal seems to be a win-win situation for both as cooperation in the hydropower and energy sector expand

India sends the right message to Pakistan
Jan 29, 2013

India sends the right message to Pakistan

After the initial fire and fury at the LoC, there is now a belief that the situation is relatively under control. This assumption may be misleading, unless the dynamics of the LoC and its violations are fully comprehended.

India's Expanding Gas Markets
Oct 01, 2008

India's Expanding Gas Markets

As a country committed to social objectives, Indian policy makers consider the allocation of commercial forms of energy too important to be left entirely to the market. India¿s mistrust of the market arises from social and commercial concerns that are entirely justifiable, but the multitude of administrative mechanisms introduced to replace the market mechanism often work at cross-purposes.

India's FDI dreams
Oct 17, 2014

India's FDI dreams

Billions of dollars in FDI have been assured to India thanks to Prime Minister Modi's successful foreign tours. However, there also has to be real technology transfer that spills over to the local economy. Only then, Modi's dream of FDI as 'First Development India' can be fulfilled.

India's G20 presidency: Prioritising equitable recovery and a global health agenda
Apr 14, 2023

India's G20 presidency: Prioritising equitable recovery and a global health agenda

India's G20 presidency can address global health challenges and help strengthen global governance to prevent future pandemics

India's nuclear option largely unaffected
Apr 28, 2011

India's nuclear option largely unaffected

MoEF, on the one hand, abruptly enforces the 'no-go' rule on 203 coal blocks with a potential output of 660 million tonne of coal per annum, jeopardising power generation, while on the other, it talks about developmental needs taking precedence over environmental and safety concerns when it comes to nuclear power plants.

India's oil hunt in South China Sea to continue
May 17, 2012

India's oil hunt in South China Sea to continue

While India is preparing to give up one of the blocks it has been drilling in, it has no intention of abandoning its search for oil and natural gas in the South China Sea.

India's pharmaceutical manufacturing power: A decisive force in Africa’s battle against malaria
Jul 13, 2023

India's pharmaceutical manufacturing power: A decisive force in Africa’s battle against malaria

India plays a pivotal role in the crucial fight against malaria by ensuring the successful production and distribution of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine

India's race to Mars goes way beyond science
Nov 06, 2013

India's race to Mars goes way beyond science

Though India is yet to demonstrate anti-satellite test capability, as China did in January 2007, the scientific establishment has made it amply clear that they have the technological blocks ready should there be a political decision to do so.

India, Japan, and the Dragon’s Fire: Making the Quad Work
Aug 14, 2023

India, Japan, and the Dragon’s Fire: Making the Quad Work

Since the 2000s, the security situation around Japan has changed as China has escalated its activities in the Indo-Pacific area. As such, the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) has an important role to play in the resolution of this issue. This brief seeks to understand the features of China's territorial expansion, how the Quad can respond to this situation, and what issues it should anticipate in the future.

India-Japan Partnership in Third Countries: A Study of Bangladesh and Myanmar
Apr 19, 2021

India-Japan Partnership in Third Countries: A Study of Bangladesh and Myanmar

As the Indo-Pacific region takes centrestage in international affairs, various stakeholder countries are engaging in different forms of economic and strategic cooperation. While such cooperation is implemented largely through bilateral or multilateral forums, certain countries are partnering to promote infrastructure connectivity in third countries across the region. This brief explores one such partnership that holds promise—that of Indi

India-Nepal oil pipeline to enhance regional connectivity
Oct 01, 2015

India-Nepal oil pipeline to enhance regional connectivity

The 41 km India-Nepal pipeline, designed to supply cost-effective and environment-friendly petroleum products to the landlocked the nation, is the first trans-national pipeline in the SAARC region. This initiative represents a win-win outcome for both the countries which will also enhance regional connectivity and economic development across the region.

India-Pak dialogue: Much talk, some substance
Oct 08, 2013

India-Pak dialogue: Much talk, some substance

At the Manmohan Singh-Nawaz Sharif meeting, it was agreed that the incidents across the LoC would be taken up by the DGMOs of both the countries. This seems to be the only worthwhile outcome of the meeting, though it remains to be seen how effective this arrangement would be. Sharif also assured the Indian Prime Minister that the most favoured nation protocol would be extended to India in order to facilitate trade between the two countries.

India-Pak peace process in a shambles
Jan 19, 2013

India-Pak peace process in a shambles

Ceasefire along LoC has not really solved any of India's problems.There exists a dire need to look beyond the existing CBMs of providing advance warnings for military exercises and ballistic missile tests which are relatively "high level" issues.

Indian cities—Stunted by partial democratisation
Dec 29, 2021

Indian cities—Stunted by partial democratisation

The Indian government should address the challenge of municipal inequity, and ensure that better opportunities are available to enhance urban governan

Indian government’s 2G restrictions in Kashmir fail to curb online extremism
May 27, 2020

Indian government’s 2G restrictions in Kashmir fail to curb online extremism

Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, extremist groups find workarounds to the digital blockade as ordinary citizens endure restricted access

Indian tech startups: A mixed picture
Dec 27, 2022

Indian tech startups: A mixed picture

Indian tech startups are confronting huge roadblocks as funding runs low

India’s Agnipath Scheme and the Impact on Ties with Nepal
Aug 17, 2023

India’s Agnipath Scheme and the Impact on Ties with Nepal

The Gorkhas, a Nepali military community, have long been recruited by the Indian Army into its Gorkha regiments. Gorkha youth are keen to join the Indian Army since its perks and payments are superior to those of the Nepali Army. However, India's new short-term military enlistment scheme, Agnipath, could alter this association. This brief discusses the impacts of the Agnipath scheme on military labour migration from Nepal to India, and on

India’s Coal Supply Security: Pushing Imports at the Expense of Domestic Reforms?
May 11, 2023

India’s Coal Supply Security: Pushing Imports at the Expense of Domestic Reforms?

Coal India Ltd. (CIL) has not been able to supply the committed quantity of coal to the powerproducers, forcing them to source coal from other countries. Apart from this, many coal blockswhich should have been in operation by now are yet to come on-stream.

India’s dash for gas: Marathon rather than a sprint 
Dec 16, 2021

India’s dash for gas: Marathon rather than a sprint 

A gas-based future looked promising for India, but the country has failed to live up to expectations.

India’s emerging technology challenge
Oct 16, 2020

India’s emerging technology challenge

Ad-hoc research initiatives and infrequent budgetary allocations would not suffice if India is to develop a vibrant research ecosystem.

India’s Energy Transition in a Climate-Constrained World
Sep 13, 2023

India’s Energy Transition in a Climate-Constrained World

Energy transitions in developing economies like India are complex processesinvolving substantial financial and technological resources as well as appropriate innovation.These transitions are central to the climate debate, where emphasis is placed on increasing theshare of renewables in the energy mix to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change. Thispaper examines the historical attributes of energy transition and finds various critical fact

India’s Lines of Credit, Development Cooperation, and G20 Presidency: A Primer
Aug 17, 2023

India’s Lines of Credit, Development Cooperation, and G20 Presidency: A Primer

Lines of Credit (LOCs) are a widely used instrument in development cooperation, including for India. The projects funded by India’s LOCs attempt to achieve a trinity of objectives: economic benefits; effective project management and completion; and nurturing and enhancing diplomatic relationship and strategic interests with the partner countries. This brief explains how India’s LOCs function, and contextualises the performance of the

India’s Maldives headache
Feb 26, 2018

India’s Maldives headache

Given the Maldives’ geostrategic location in the Indian Ocean, it is understandable that China has long-term strategic interests in it. The island nation sits atop of critical sea lanes of communication (SLOCs). Gaining a larger footprint in the Indian Ocean is now part of China’s stated strategy.

India’s Maritime Agenda Pivots to Western Indian Ocean
Aug 16, 2023

India’s Maritime Agenda Pivots to Western Indian Ocean

The Western Indian Ocean Region (WIOR) is linked to India in several ways, yet it remains conspicuous in its absence from India’s foreign policy discourse. This lack of attention is now beginning to reverse as external players stake their geopolitical claims in the region. India has responded by reorienting its own nautical outlook towards WIOR and building friendly relationships with African countries that straddle the region. This bri

India’s pink economy
Mar 02, 2024

India’s pink economy

Unlocking the economic potential of the LGBTQ+ community will enhance India’s economic progress by tapping into diverse talents, driving innovation,

India’s shape of recovery
Dec 15, 2020

India’s shape of recovery

The shape of India’s recovery shows a multi-speed recovery with different sectors recovering at different paces, with the poor and marginalised bein

India’s Stakes in Taliban-Ruled Afghanistan
Aug 01, 2023

India’s Stakes in Taliban-Ruled Afghanistan

The Taliban’s return to power in Afghanistan in August 2021 changed the strategic dynamics in the region. For India, the new regime and its attendant risks—especially the threat of terrorism—quickly put it in an unenviable position. This brief assesses India’s policy towards Afghanistan since August 2021. It will cover how India has articulated its Afghan policy, domestically and in multilateral organisations, and its incremental

Indo-Nepal borderland: The fate of migrant labourers
May 07, 2020

Indo-Nepal borderland: The fate of migrant labourers

The plight of the Nepali migrant labourers stuck in foreign countries like India advertently questions the interest of these labourers to travel abroa

Ineffective strategy to fight insurgency
Jul 24, 2014

Ineffective strategy to fight insurgency

All insurgencies are political movements supported by the local population and can only be resolved through political means. The military establishment can only ensure that the rebel movement is sufficiently neutralised and violent action curtailed.

Infrastructure, institutions and industrialisation: The Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor and regional development in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh
Aug 21, 2023

Infrastructure, institutions and industrialisation: The Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor and regional development in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh

The Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) is one of several infrastructure megaprojects underway in India, intended to boost industrial modernisation and generate manufacturing employment for India’s young, largely unskilled workforce. Field research in DMIC investment sites in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh shows that its implementation is highly uneven across States and regions. The research, along with the literature, suggests that regional ind

Insurrection in the ‘other’ Kashmir
May 16, 2024

Insurrection in the ‘other’ Kashmir

Although the current uprising PoJK is predominantly centred around economic issues, there is a deeper underpinning of issues of political economy and

Introduction The framers of the Constitution of India, which came into force in 1950, put faith in the State to provide  ...
Aug 16, 2023

Introduction The framers of the Constitution of India, which came into force in 1950, put faith in the State to provide free and compulsory education for all children up to 14 years of age. Article 45

Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) in India is enshrined in the Constitution and mandated under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act 2009. Yet, its implementation remains tentative for many reasons, primary of which is the absence of a clear government guideline regarding which Ministry is tasked with policymaking and implementation. This brief attempts to offer an answer for the government. It examines

IPEF: Trade in policy, not in pact
Jun 22, 2022

IPEF: Trade in policy, not in pact

With Biden and IPEF highlighting economic transparency, it is seen as a way for Washington to create an Indo-Pacific trade bloc without creating a tra