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#BRICS की रिज़र्व करेंसी: क्या डॉलर का दबदबा कम करने की कोशिश है?
Sep 05, 2022

#BRICS की रिज़र्व करेंसी: क्या डॉलर का दबदबा कम करने की कोशिश है?

जहां तक रूस और चीन की बात है तो वो डॉलर में कारोबार कम करने

#G20 India: भारत की G20 अध्यक्षता और साइबर सुरक्षा से जुड़ी प्राथमिकताएं!
Dec 28, 2022

#G20 India: भारत की G20 अध्यक्षता और साइबर सुरक्षा से जुड़ी प्राथमिकताएं!

G20 के अध्यक्ष के रूप में भारत के पास अब एक सुरक्षित साइबरस्

#GST के पांच साल: भारत के वित्तीय संघवाद पर पड़ने वाला असर?
Jul 25, 2022

#GST के पांच साल: भारत के वित्तीय संघवाद पर पड़ने वाला असर?

GST व्यवस्था लागू होने के पिछले पांच वर्षों के दौरान हमने द�

#NewEconomicDiplomacy: नयी आर्थिक कूटनीतिक दुनिया में ‘भारत’ होने के मायने!
Jul 30, 2023

#NewEconomicDiplomacy: नयी आर्थिक कूटनीतिक दुनिया में ‘भारत’ होने के मायने!

आर्थिक कूटनीति के नये क्षेत्रों को लेकर भारत के रुख़ पर न

#Public Policy: सरकारी नीतियों में व्याप्त कमियों को कैसे दूर किया जाए?
Jul 14, 2022

#Public Policy: सरकारी नीतियों में व्याप्त कमियों को कैसे दूर किया जाए?

आज जब महामारी से लेकर यूक्रेन संकट तक तमाम तरह की उठा-पटक �

#श्रीलंका संकट को लेकर चीन के जवाब को समझिए!
Aug 05, 2022

#श्रीलंका संकट को लेकर चीन के जवाब को समझिए!

दांव पर बहुत कुछ लगा होने के बावजूद श्रीलंका में आर्थिक स�

17वां CII-एग्ज़िम बैंक कॉन्क्लेव: भारत-अफ़्रीका विकास भागीदारी की संभावना
Aug 30, 2022

17वां CII-एग्ज़िम बैंक कॉन्क्लेव: भारत-अफ़्रीका विकास भागीदारी की संभावना

हाल ही में भारत में संपन्न CII-एग्ज़िम बैंक कॉन्क्लेव से व्�

2022 में बिम्सटेक: प्रासंगिकता की खोज
Jul 31, 2023

2022 में बिम्सटेक: प्रासंगिकता की खोज

विश्व की बदलती व्यवस्था बिम्सटेक को दक्षिण एशियाई क्षेत�

75 वर्ष का भारत: नैतिकता, अर्थव्यवस्था और मिसाल
Jul 30, 2023

75 वर्ष का भारत: नैतिकता, अर्थव्यवस्था और मिसाल

भारत अपनी ‘आर्थिक संरचना’ को इन नई हक़ीक़तों के हिसाब से �

A New Social Contract for the Digital Age
Dec 19, 2018

A New Social Contract for the Digital Age

A new social contract between citizens, consumers, employees, the state, and enterprise is needed to delineate a new understanding around rights, responsibilities and entitlements. Digital  transformations  are  rapidly  altering  the  nature  of  work,  models  of employment,    contracts,    regulations    and    protections.    Increasingly,    the responsibilities  of the state are becoming the obligations  of,�

Agenda for Economic Reform P. N. DHARI. G. PATELM NARASIMHAMR. N. MALHOTRA
Jun 24, 2021

Agenda for Economic Reform P. N. DHARI. G. PATELM NARASIMHAMR. N. MALHOTRA

ndia was facing a massive balance of payment crisis when the Observer Research Foundation released a document, ‘Agenda for Economic Reform’, on 1 July 1991. The Agenda outlined the reasons for the crisis and recommended a broad strategy to enable the country to overcome it. As India marks 30 years since the start of widespread reforms that opened up the economy, ORF revisits the recommendations outlined in the document.

An Intellectual History of Modern Leftist Politics in the US
Aug 14, 2023

An Intellectual History of Modern Leftist Politics in the US

Left-wing activism amongst young people in the United States is on the rise, in no small part aided by the internet and social media. The generation which demographic researchers refer to as ‘Gen-Z’—or those born between the mid- to late 1990s to the early 2010s—is becoming more politically engaged. This brief offers an intellectual history of modern-day leftist politics in the US, and argues that it is primarily driven by the pur

Bigger, Not Necessarily Better: India’s Defence Budget 2022-23
Aug 11, 2023

Bigger, Not Necessarily Better: India’s Defence Budget 2022-23

This brief examines India’s defence allocations for 2022-23. It outlines the conceptual and definitional aspects of the defence budget, examines defence allocations from the prism of state of the economy and public finance, and explores the potential impacts of the budget announcements on the defence production sector of the government’s self-reliance mission, Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan. The analysis also utilises a comparison of India’s mi

BNPL: क़र्ज़ का लुभावना मकड़जाल: नियामकों के लिए भी एक पहेली
Aug 09, 2023

BNPL: क़र्ज़ का लुभावना मकड़जाल: नियामकों के लिए भी एक पहेली

बीएनपीएल के बढ़ते उपयोग के संदर्भ में आरबीआई को इस बात के

Breathing new life into BIMSTEC: Challenges and imperatives
Apr 27, 2020

Breathing new life into BIMSTEC: Challenges and imperatives

This paper explores the various opportunities and challenges of the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation or BIMSTEC, a unique inter-regional grouping composed of aspiring member countries from South Asia and Southeast Asia. While the grouping has massive potential to contribute to regional cooperation, this paper explores the capabilities of the organisation in terms of meeting the expectations of renewed

Capital Flows in the Quantitative Easing Era: Building Resilience in Emerging Economies
Sep 13, 2023

Capital Flows in the Quantitative Easing Era: Building Resilience in Emerging Economies

This paper highlights the risks that emerging economies are exposed to given the extended use of Unconventional Monetary Policies in advanced economies. It also explores how financial resilience of emerging economies can be increased to ensure stable economic growth.

China’s Monetary Dilemma: The Case for Revaluation of the Renminbi
Aug 23, 2023

China’s Monetary Dilemma: The Case for Revaluation of the Renminbi

Increasingly, the Chinese are realising that keeping their currency undervalued is not a viable option. The end game as far as the exchange rate management in China is concerned should look towards establishing a less controlled and more market oriented exchange rate-one that is determined by actual demand and supply factors.

China’s Tech Challenge: Assessing Biden’s Response
Jul 15, 2023

China’s Tech Challenge: Assessing Biden’s Response

Vivek Mishra, “China’s Tech Challenge: Assessing Biden’s Response,” ORF Issue Brief No. 649, July 2023.

Community Driven Development in Developing Countries
Aug 11, 2023

Community Driven Development in Developing Countries

This paper highlights the increasing importance of Community Driven Development (CDD) in the delivery of public services to the poorest sections and enhancing access, voice and accountability in developing countries. Community participation in the delivery of ‘public services’ to the poorest sections of the population in developing countries has often been regarded as an effective mechanism to enhance access, voice and accountability.

COP27 में घाटे और क्षति के लिए वित्त: अधूरी सफलता और गंवाए गए अवसर
Dec 10, 2022

COP27 में घाटे और क्षति के लिए वित्त: अधूरी सफलता और गंवाए गए अवसर

शर्म अल-शेख़ जलवायु सम्मेलन में एक बड़ी आम सहमति ज़रूर बन�

COVID19 and Pakistan: The Economic Fallout
Jun 04, 2020

COVID19 and Pakistan: The Economic Fallout

Pakistan has been one of the countries worst affected by COVID-19, with the economic disruption caused by the pandemic exacerbating an already existing crisis. This paper discusses how the public health crisis has affected some of the most critical sectors of the Pakistani economy. While the government has implemented some mitigation measures, they are inadequate to counter the impact of the pandemic. The paper analyses the likely fallout of a ne

Crypto Policy: भारत में क्रिप्टो नीति को लेकर तमाशा जारी
Jul 30, 2023

Crypto Policy: भारत में क्रिप्टो नीति को लेकर तमाशा जारी

जब ख़तरनाक रफ़्तार से डिजिटल वित्त सेक्टर आगे बढ़ रहा है,

Europe: यूरोप ने अपने मुक्त़ व्यापार के एजेंडे की रफ़्तार में लायी तेज़ी
Dec 12, 2022

Europe: यूरोप ने अपने मुक्त़ व्यापार के एजेंडे की रफ़्तार में लायी तेज़ी

आपूर्ति श्रृंखलाओं में विविधता लाने की ज़रूरत बढ़ती जा र

Examining China’s adherence to international norms
Aug 20, 2023

Examining China’s adherence to international norms

China has often showed a lack of willingness to abide by not only established international law but also certain norms that the global community has fostered over the years. It has flouted the decision issued by an arbitration court at The Hague regarding its claims in the South China Sea; it has also appropriated intellectual property.  In the 1970s when the Western economies were taking the lead in setting global norms while balancing the thre

Examining the limitations of India’s online visa regime
May 30, 2017

Examining the limitations of India’s online visa regime

In November 2014, India introduced a visa facility allowing foreign travellers wanting to come to India for recreational purposes, casual visits with friends or relatives, short-duration medical treatment or business visits, to apply for their visa online. Since then, the government has taken specific initiatives to improve the process, with the more recent ones including the introduction of three e-visa categories (e-medical, e-business, and e-t

Exploring New Trends in Development Finance through Private Capital
Jul 27, 2021

Exploring New Trends in Development Finance through Private Capital

This brief examines the efficacy of the inclusion of private capital in development finance, using the cases of certain countries that have met with success in utilising such a strategy. It underlines the experiences of institutions like the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) and the United States International Development Finance Corporation (US-IDFC) that use innovative financial tools to support international financial institution

Exports and e-commerce in India
Oct 24, 2017

Exports and e-commerce in India

This paper attempts to make a contribution in the context of the recent push in making India an e-empowered economy for promoting exports. The study stems from the premise that exports respond significantly to the costs associated with breaking into foreign markets and sustaining in those markets, whereas e-commerce offers a ready platform to minimise such costs. The empirical exercise focuses on export decision and export intensity, after adjust

Financial Inclusion of Women: Current Evidence from India
Aug 17, 2023

Financial Inclusion of Women: Current Evidence from India

Financial inclusion is critical to achieving the economic empowerment of women—one of the targets under the fifth Sustainable Development Goal on gender equality. In India, one in every five women lack access to a bank account. Although the country’s programmes promoting financial inclusion have increased the percentage of women having access to a bank account, wide gaps remain in account use, and access to savings and credit. Women c

Finding innovative solutions to India’s NPA woes
Aug 21, 2023

Finding innovative solutions to India’s NPA woes

Accumulated non-performing assets (NPAs) in the Indian banking system, specifically in the public sector banks (PSBs), have adverse effects on credit disbursement. An increasing amount of bad loans have prompted the banks to be extra cautious, which has dried the credit channel. Two components are key in resolving the NPA problem: the immediate task of resolving the current accumulation in the PSBs, and the more important long-term task of ensuri

Future of Natural Gas in India: Paving the Way to Benefit from Upside Risks of LNG Supply
Aug 23, 2023

Future of Natural Gas in India: Paving the Way to Benefit from Upside Risks of LNG Supply

This Issue Brief seeks to provide inputs for further discussion to gain from potential windfall opportunities that might arise for India's natural gas industry as well as lay the requisite foundation for a future plan.