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Online school education in India during and beyond the pandemic
Jul 07, 2020

Online school education in India during and beyond the pandemic

Online education is necessary because children benefit from structured learning environments, and there is a danger of them regressing if their educat

Online shopping: Impact on city planning and infrastructure
Jan 01, 2019

Online shopping: Impact on city planning and infrastructure

Internet shopping has become an effective way of boosting an economy by increasing demand, expanding consumption and promoting employment. It has impr

A pandemic of abuse: How India is protecting its children online
Jun 24, 2022

A pandemic of abuse: How India is protecting its children online

The incidence of online child sexual abuse and exploitation (OCSAE) has spiked worldwide since the pandemic began. India is responding to the menace i

Australia: Demonstrating leadership in the space of online child safety
Sep 20, 2022

Australia: Demonstrating leadership in the space of online child safety

Australia’s efforts to fight the surge in online child sexual abuse and exploitation during the pandemic could act as an exemplar for other nations.

Automation in moderation: Preserving fundamental rights while moderating online content at scale
Apr 14, 2021

Automation in moderation: Preserving fundamental rights while moderating online content at scale

In order to safeguard against function creep, governments and platforms must be transparent about how and where automated tools are used.

Blocking online porn: Who should make Constitutional decisions?
Mar 16, 2015

Blocking online porn: Who should make Constitutional decisions?

A constitutional court must not outsource its judgement on freedom of expression online to an industry association even if it convenes others to help make this decision. It must also avoid allowing the executive to take over this role, determining without any transparency what content is blocked.

Changing Geographies of Work: India’s Online Gig Workers in a Digitalised Labour Market
Nov 18, 2021

Changing Geographies of Work: India’s Online Gig Workers in a Digitalised Labour Market

Digital labour platforms—or online marketplaces that connect work providers and work seekers—will undoubtedly help shape the future of work. This brief studies the platforms targeted at online gig workers (or freelancers), who use them to find digital work opportunities in their home market or elsewhere, and then produce and deliver their services remotely. The brief explains the underlying technological and economic drivers and how the Covid

China is Putting Limits to Online Gaming for Kids, Indian Policymakers Must Step in Too
Sep 06, 2021

China is Putting Limits to Online Gaming for Kids, Indian Policymakers Must Step in Too

India has seen a huge jump in screen time by 25 per cent (4.9 hours pre-COVID to 6.9 hours) during the pandemic.

Countering Disinformation and Hate Speech Online: Regulation and User Behavioural Change
Jan 25, 2021

Countering Disinformation and Hate Speech Online: Regulation and User Behavioural Change

Social media platforms facilitate the sharing of information and enhance connectivity and civic engagement. At the same time, however, they are vulnerable to abuse by malicious actors who use the channels to spread misinformation and hateful and divisive content. Regulatory reforms must seek to align the utility of social media platforms with the welfare of citizens, while safeguarding the right to free speech. This paper explores the regulatory

Crowdsourcing violence: Decoding online propaganda of new militant groups in Kashmir
Jan 19, 2022

Crowdsourcing violence: Decoding online propaganda of new militant groups in Kashmir

As new militant groups use digital militancy to garner support, the Indian government should implement effective counter narratives to control false p

Cybersecurity threats from online gaming
Aug 04, 2023

Cybersecurity threats from online gaming

There is an urgent need for governments and policymakers around the world to start paying more attention to the gaming industry as cybersecurity threa

Cybersecurity Threats in Online Gaming: Learnings for India
Jan 10, 2024

Cybersecurity Threats in Online Gaming: Learnings for India

This brief examines the rapid growth of the global online gaming industry and the consequent increase in cyber threats. Issues such as microtransactions, money laundering, and predatory practices by developers can stymie the industry’s growth potential if not addressed. Many countries’ current gaming-focused regulatory frameworks do not cover these challenges and will need to be revised. India—a significant gaming market—must also conside

Debunking lynch mobs: An ethical approach to online harassment and free speech
Nov 03, 2016

Debunking lynch mobs: An ethical approach to online harassment and free speech

"Lynch mobs" on Internet exist and have real effects. But only way to effectively regulate is social regulation. And that too through an ethical appro

Embracing nonlinearity: The future of India’s entertainment industry
Jan 13, 2021

Embracing nonlinearity: The future of India’s entertainment industry

The first step to prepare India to become a global leader in creative industries is an exercise in imagination — picturing what entertainment will l

Examining the limitations of India’s online visa regime
May 30, 2017

Examining the limitations of India’s online visa regime

In November 2014, India introduced a visa facility allowing foreign travellers wanting to come to India for recreational purposes, casual visits with friends or relatives, short-duration medical treatment or business visits, to apply for their visa online. Since then, the government has taken specific initiatives to improve the process, with the more recent ones including the introduction of three e-visa categories (e-medical, e-business, and e-t

Exploring the gender dimensions of CVE online
Apr 14, 2021

Exploring the gender dimensions of CVE online

It is crucial for CVE responses to more meaningfully incorporate gender perspectives and address structural gender inequality as an essential part of

From streets to tweets: Surveying the impact of online activism
Sep 08, 2020

From streets to tweets: Surveying the impact of online activism

Despite being criticised as being ‘convenient’ or ‘lazy’ — online activism makes a significant impact. It has become an integral part of act

Gender-based violence in private online spaces
Jun 23, 2022

Gender-based violence in private online spaces

With increasing gender-based violence in online spaces, the need of the hour is to have holistic user protection.

Graduating from emergency remote teaching to online higher education in India
Jun 03, 2020

Graduating from emergency remote teaching to online higher education in India

Even if a single student is left behind, the move to online teaching will remain unfair. In the longer term, the Central and state governments must co

https://www.orfonline.org/research/health-infrastructure-planning-amid-covid-19-the-case-of-mumbai/
Jan 13, 2021

https://www.orfonline.org/research/health-infrastructure-planning-amid-covid-19-the-case-of-mumbai/

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented stress on India’s urban public health infrastructure, underscoring the need for urban planning to account for increased demand for health amenities during crises. This paper evaluates the city of Mumbai’s 1991 and 2034 development plans and finds inherent infrastructural inadequacies. It calls on urban-policymakers to complement development plans with robust dynamic health strategies that conside

https://www.orfonline.org/research/no-childs-play-the-enduring-challenge-of-creating-child-friendly-cities/
May 15, 2023

https://www.orfonline.org/research/no-childs-play-the-enduring-challenge-of-creating-child-friendly-cities/

Child-friendly cities’ is an emerging concept in the urban management sector in many countries across the globe, including India, where it complements government schemes that aim to develop India’s urban spaces as centres of human capital development, knowledge hubs, and drivers of growth and prosperity. These flagship missions include, for example, the Smart Cities Mission and the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMR

Implications of Operation 1027: From armed conflict to online scams
Nov 29, 2023

Implications of Operation 1027: From armed conflict to online scams

The military coup has led to a breakdown of the rule of law in Myanmar, creating a conducive environment for criminal activities, especially in border

Indian government’s 2G restrictions in Kashmir fail to curb online extremism
May 27, 2020

Indian government’s 2G restrictions in Kashmir fail to curb online extremism

Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, extremist groups find workarounds to the digital blockade as ordinary citizens endure restricted access

Keep the doors locked and turn on the light: Why less security online does not make us more secure offline
Oct 26, 2016

Keep the doors locked and turn on the light: Why less security online does not make us more secure offline

repeated calls for weakening industry encryption standards raise the question of whether the means employed by governments to protect national and per

Promoting Child Safety Online in the Time of COVID-19: The Indian and Australian Responses
Aug 14, 2023

Promoting Child Safety Online in the Time of COVID-19: The Indian and Australian Responses

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, there has been a surge in cases of online child sexual abuse and exploitation (OCSAE) in many parts of the world. This brief discusses the cases of India and Australia. It examines their efforts to combat the increased incidence of OCSAE resulting from greater use of the internet as movement was restricted in response to the pandemic. The brief focuses on India and Australia as bo

Reclaiming the digital: Countering violent extremism online
Sep 21, 2017

Reclaiming the digital: Countering violent extremism online

While counter-speech is an integral part, it cannot be the only mechanism for a successful counter violent extremism strategy.

Regulating online gaming: Economic pursuit over civic responsibility
May 29, 2023

Regulating online gaming: Economic pursuit over civic responsibility

The new regulations introduced by MeITy need to expand beyond gambling games and include guidelines on ethical gameplay and consumer protection

Reimagining communities: Making a case for mental health through online gaming
May 31, 2022

Reimagining communities: Making a case for mental health through online gaming

An analysis of how online gaming could have a positive effect on the mental health of an individual.

Should online sale of liquor and its home delivery be legislated?
May 12, 2020

Should online sale of liquor and its home delivery be legislated?

India is the third largest liquor market in the world with a present value of $35 billion and further to see an exponential growth of 22% by 2022 —

Strengthening the Online Education Ecosystem in India
Nov 18, 2020

Strengthening the Online Education Ecosystem in India

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the formal schooling system in India, as it has across the globe, causing massive pressure on the online education sector. This paper analyses the state of digitalised education in India. It outlines current government guidelines on digital-mode schooling, and uses the case of Maharashtra’s five-year-old efforts at digitalising government schools to gauge preparedness for implementing the guidelines. It highl

Technology and Terror: A new era of threat in a borderless online world
May 21, 2019

Technology and Terror: A new era of threat in a borderless online world

Terror requires spectacle to thrive and technology has allowed this opera of violence to find new audiences and locales.

The future of counterterrorism: Evolving online tools and tactics
Feb 21, 2024

The future of counterterrorism: Evolving online tools and tactics

As terrorists and violent extremists adapt their online tactics in the era of AI, counterterrorism efforts should also evolve, employing new tools and