Author : Prachi Mittal

Issue BriefsPublished on Jan 23, 2020 PDF Download
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India’s triangular cooperation with the US, UK and Japan in Africa: A comparative analysis

Triangular cooperation aims to forge global partnerships and foster sustainable global development. In such a system, traditional donors provide financial and technical support to facilitate development activities between two developing countries in the South, i.e. one emerging donor country and a beneficiary. Triangular cooperation allows nations to learn from the mistakes of the pioneers of the development cooperation process, bringing about cost-effective and efficient development assistance in the recipient countries. This brief examines India’s growth as a partner in development cooperation and, in particular, its commitment to triangular cooperation programmes. The brief highlights the distinctions and similarities between India–UK, India–US, and India–Japan partnerships in terms of track-one diplomacy, scale of operations, diversity and swiftness.


Prachi Mittal, ‘India’s Triangular Cooperation with the US, UK and Japan in Africa: A Comparative Analysis’, ORF Issue Brief No. 337, January 2020, Observer Research Foundation.


With a long legacy of development assistance, India has had a remarkable journey from being an aid receiver to an emerging donor. Despite the country’s own development challenges, India has embraced its global commitments and engages in development cooperation with other developing countries. Unlike the OECD’s Official Development Assistance (ODA), the development assistance that India provides is wilful, i.e. “development cooperation” for mutual benefit and not foreign aid.[1] India believes that when the countries are involved in any kind of cooperation—be it through bilateral or multilateral channels—the gains should be spread uniformly by leveraging the comparative advantages of the countries in question.

In the initial stages of the conception of triangular cooperation, India was hesitant to engage actively due to its policy of anti-colonialism and non-alignment. It did not want to partner with the ex-colonial powers who were seen as ‘exploiting’ the African continent. For the newly decolonised countries, India championed the cause of industrialisation and responded to their demands in the underlying sectors, e.g. trade, investment, technology and capacity-building.[2] In the 2000s, India–Africa trade relations started an upward trajectory. The African continent has substantial potential to develop, and India has been considered as a promising emerging power. According to Ambassador (Retd.) H.H.S. Viswanathan, Distinguished Fellow at Observer Research Foundation, “In order to avoid duplication of effort, there was a need for the western countries to partner with India and Africa and hence a triangular cooperation with many countries working in Africa was developed.”

In 2003, the India Development Initiative (IDI), located within the Ministry of Finance, was established to improve the development assistance framework, and in 2004, the Indian Development and Economic Assistance Scheme (IDEAS) was set up to facilitate Lines of Credit (LoC) through EXIM Bank. In 2006 and 2007, India co-founded the global network of Exim Banks and Development Finance Institutions (G-NEXID) and promoted the creation of the Development Cooperation Fund (DCF) under the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Unlike the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development-Development Assistance Committee (OECD-DAC), the DCF is a grouping of recipients and donors based on mutually agreed principles and demand-driven priorities. In 2012, the Development Partnership Administration (DPA) was created as a separate agency within the Ministry of External Affairs.

The data for ‘Net Aid Provided by India (INR Crore)’ is used to investigate patterns in India’s development assistance. This dataset essentially means:

Net aid provided by India = Aid provided by India – Aid received by India

This India-specific dataset is extracted from the Ministry of External Affairs website (2007–08 to 2015–16). The trend is captured using a line graph.

Source: Ministry of External Affairs.

In Figure 1, the rising trend line shows India’s active involvement in providing development assistance to partner countries, overcoming its traditional role from an aid recipient to an aid donor. India began engaging in triangular and trilateral cooperation programmes to create a global footprint as an emerging donor. Trilateral cooperation was prevalent much before triangular cooperation. Northern donors, such as USAID and JICA, have been actively promoting triangular cooperation since the early 2000s, because of its many underlying advantages.[3] Traditional donors such as the US and the UK are training emerging donors to take their place in the future, which will allow the former to step back and reduce their burden of traditional donorship. This has led to a cost-effective development cooperation for the northern donors, by way of resource-pooling and hiring consultants from emerging countries.

The renewed importance attached to triangular cooperation is further reflected in key development policy documents, such as the 2010 Bogotá Statement and the 2010 UN Secretary General’s Report on development cooperation. The following are the key takeaways from the 2010 Bogotá Statement.

  1. “The South–South Cooperation is not a substitute but a complement to the North-South Cooperation, with triangular cooperation acting as a bridge between South-South and North-South cooperation.
  2. The synergies between the partner country, emerging donor and traditional donor can be improved through triangular cooperation, by reducing transaction costs and engaging in modalities that combine capacities, know-how, and resources from the North and the South.
  3. In order for triangular cooperation to be effective, it is important that each actor contributes according to their respective comparative advantages—and shares responsibility for demand-based development results.”[4]

The 2010 UN Secretary General’s Report states that the key to achieving the development cooperation goals is to focus on the Least Developed Countries (LDCs).[5]

The UN Conference on South–South Cooperation, known as “BAPA+40 Conference,” encouraged the participating countries to enhance their involvement in Triangular Development Cooperation. The conference addressed the key argument that the scope of triangular cooperation is getting broader, with an increase in the number of actors involved. The BAPA outcome document notes, “There has been an expansion of the number of relevant actors in development, including multiple stakeholders, sub-national entities and parliamentarians, civil society, private sector, volunteer groups, faith-based organizations, philanthropic organizations, scientific and technological communities, foundations and think-tanks, and academia, as appropriate.”[6]

To understand the main agenda, it is important to highlight the difference between triangular cooperation and trilateral cooperation. While the two terms—triangular and trilateral—are often used interchangeably, there is a crucial difference. “Triangular cooperation involves Southern-driven partnerships between two or more developing countries supported by a developed country or countries, or multilateral organisation(s) to implement development cooperation programmes and projects. In many instances, Southern providers of development cooperation require the financial and technical support, and expertise of multilateral and/or developed country partners in the course of assisting other developing countries.”[7] Trilateral cooperation is a development relationship, in which a Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donor and/or multilateral agency (e.g. Japan, Germany, the UNDP) partners with a ‘pivotal’ country (e.g. Brazil, Thailand, South Africa) to work with a third partner (recipient) country (e.g. Ghana, Laos, Mozambique).[8] Thus, trilateral cooperation adds a third way to deal with the two predominant structures—North–South aid and South–South aid—and is progressively equivalent in nature. On the other hand, triangular cooperation takes the South–South Cooperation forward and works on the principle of “power dynamics.” Civil society organisations and non-governmental actors are often associated with triangular cooperation, whereas the trilateral cooperation is simply government-to-government, i.e. the governance structures of the nations are accorded prime importance. The India–US, India–UK and India–Japan associations are examples of “triangular cooperation.”

Sebastian Paulo, in his ORF paper, “India as a partner in Triangular Development Cooperation,” explains how India emerged as a promising candidate for triangular cooperation, using a detailed analysis of the India–UK framework of triangular cooperation.[9] This brief will focus on three different triangular cooperation programmes, to draw out India’s commitment to working with Africa in collaboration with three worldwide pioneers, i.e. the US, the UK and Japan.


Over the past two decades, the US and India have fortified their relationship. In September 2014, the two conceived a bilateral relationship, based on the principle “Chalein Saath: Forward Together We Go,”[10] mentioned in the first “Vision Statement for the Strategic Partnership.” This vision statement serves as a manual for reinforcing and developing collaboration for global stability and job-led growth over the next 10 years.

From an economic perspective, it is imperative to consolidate individuals in the formal sector of the job market, in both skilled and unskilled jobs. The statement also included other sectors, e.g. energy and climate change, defence and homeland security cooperation, high technology, space and health cooperation, and global issues and regional consultations. Further expanding their collaboration in the agricultural innovation sector within three African nations, the triangular cooperation focused on new sectors, namely, agricultural productivity, clean energy, health, women’s empowerment and disaster preparedness.[11]

After the first bilateral summit, the two partner countries signed the India–US Statement of Guiding Principles on Triangular Cooperation for Global Development on 3 November 2014,[12] catering to the fulfilment of Sustainable Development Goal-17 (SDG 17).[13] During the second bilateral summit, held on 25 January 2015, the triangular cooperation was further deepened in Africa, based on the leitmotif “साँझा प्रयास – सबका विकास – Shared Effort; Progress for All.”[14]

While India and the US have different histories and diverse traditions, the two are collaborating to promote growth in the African continent. Both India and the US have bilateral agreements with Africa, e.g. the US–Africa Leaders’ Summit and India–Africa Forum Summit. The First Amendment to the SGP Agreement extends the validity of the SGP Agreement to 2021.[15] The amended Agreement expands the scope of the US–India triangular cooperation, focusing primarily on agriculture, regional connectivity, trade and investments, nutrition, health, clean and renewable energy, women empowerment, disaster preparedness, water, sanitation, education and institution-building. It also expands the scope of capacity-building activities undertaken jointly by the two nations and provides a consultative mechanism for joint biannual monitoring and review of activities under the Statement of Guiding Principles.

The Feed the Future India Triangular Training (FTF-ITT) Programme, launched on 25 July 2016, was a step forward in the US–India Triangular Cooperation Programme for Africa.[16] The stage was set in 2010, with the formulation of the Agriculture Partnership between the two, to achieve a green revolution and address food security globally. The Feed for Future programme is crucial in addressing the issues of massive poverty, hunger and malnutrition. The programme is implemented by The National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management (MANAGE), Hyderabad, India, an autonomous organisation under the Indian Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare. It is fully funded by the US and India, through USAID and MANAGE, respectively.[17]

The progress of this programme has been commendable. The pilot study focused on three African countries—Kenya, Liberia and Malawi—with an aim to expand across the entire continent. Its initial objective was the training of 1,400 agricultural professionals from 17 partner countries of Africa and Asia (from 2016 to 2020), to address the issues of food and nutritional security. As of 30 April 2018, 622 executives from 15 countries have been trained. The FTF-ITT offers both practical and theory-based training. The sessions are delivered through lectures, group discussions, case studies and field visits, and pre- and post-training tests are conducted to assess their impact. The results have revealed that the knowledge of the executives have increased: on an average, every executive scored 44.30 percent in pre-tests and 70.45 percent in post-tests, with an average change of 26.15 percent in the knowledge level.[18]

There has been a slow but steady progress to address the issue of massive poverty, hunger and malnutrition within the African continent. There is a need to institutionalise initiatives cited in the above-mentioned agreements, as done for the FTF-ITT. 


India and UK’s relationship has evolved from an aid-based donor–recipient relationship to a partnership for global development.[19] The triangular cooperation between the two works on the principle of the “Financing for Development” framework of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. The Agenda will require a mobilising of resources and capabilities from highly noticeable sources, both public and private, domestic and international. The two nations took this cooperation forward in the fields of defence and security (including cyber security, maritime security and counterterrorism), climate change, and disaster resilience.

In November 2015, the Indian Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) and the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) issued the “Statement of Intent on Partnership for Cooperation in Third Countries” to deepen their cooperation in developing countries. While the two countries formally joined hands in 2015, the foundation of the triangular cooperation had been set in 2014. In March 2014, a project called “Supporting India’s Trade Preferences for Africa” (SITA), funded by the DFID, was implemented by the International Trade Centre (ITC). The programme was aimed at increasing the value of business transactions between India and Africa, with the objective of job creation and increased income opportunities. This would, in turn, boost trade in both countries.

Five East-African countries—Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and the United Republic of Tanzania—were selected to create income and employment opportunities. The DFID is the donor for this programme, providing a funding of £19 million for the duration of 2014–20. The success of the project depends on enhanced access to Indian markets and improved partnerships: investment; the transfer of knowledge, expertise and technology from India to East Africa by increasing the capacities of East African companies and national and regional Trade Support Institutions (TSIs); stronger public–private dialogues; and better business linkages. Since its implementation, the SITA has had tremendous impact in terms of exports, investment and business transactions. As of March 2018, exports from East Africa amounted to a total of US$ 22 million: US$ 16 million to India and US$ 6 million to third countries. Investment deals worth US$ 26.5 million were made in the region, and US$ 68 million is under negotiation.[20]

The SITA also ensures women empowerment, to allow for equal distribution of economic benefits amongst these value chains. Of the 47 companies that transacted business, 14 were women-owned business enterprises. The Mitreeki East Africa–India Partnership was launched in 2017, with the aim of fostering women entrepreneurs in East Africa. In its first stage, 150 women entrepreneurs received training, mentoring and opportunity to access finance through the Mitreeki network.[21]

India has developed cost-effective, pro-poor techniques and innovations in many areas, such as health, agriculture, trade and services, which it can apply to Africa. The UK, on the other hand, provides all the required resources to implement them. The DFID mainly draws on technical and development assistance to build the capacity of partners in India and other developing countries, as well as facilitate their relationships. The overarching objective is to maximise the development impact of Indian partners in generating research, mobilising innovations, delivering services, and promoting economic exchange through investment and trade.[22]

The UK–India Triangular Cooperation has conceptualised several breakthrough projects:

The DFID–TERI Partnership for Clean Energy Access and Improved Policies for Sustainable Development: It is a collaborative action-research venture, which aims to increase awareness and create a demand for clean-energy products and services, thereby promoting the use of clean cooking and lighting solutions to poor households. The project focuses on Kenya and Ethiopia, and from 2011 to 2015, it has received a total funding of up to £9 Million: £8 m from DFID India and £1 m from Global Development Partnership Programme (GDPP) for activities in Africa.[23] The project aimed to reach 200,000 people by 2015, by installing solar lighting and cooking solutions in 40,000 households. As of 2015, it has reached over 300,000 people in Africa, with the installation of 33,000 improved cooking stoves and 23,000 lighting solutions. Further, 10 new technologies and delivery models for clean lighting solutions have already been developed and tested.[24]

The Strategic Health and Nutrition Partnership (SHNP): This project incorporates health-financing reforms of India and aims to build networks for learning in other developing countries of Africa. The programme was implemented in 2013 and continued till 2018. The DFID provided £15 million as technical assistance over these five years: £12 m from the India country framework and £3 m from the GDPP fund, to expedite the progress on global health coverage, health financing, and nutrition services. The technical support provided using the SHNP allowed the GoI to channel its resources effectively, leading to improved health outcomes, particularly for women, children and marginalised populations. India has excellent technical and manufacturing capacities in the context of pharmaceutical products. Currently, India provides over 80 percent of the drugs used for HIV/AIDS in Africa.[25] Further, India’s health and nutrition policies can also be employed in the health sectors of other developing countries.

The Global Knowledge Partnership Programme (KKP): This programme works with many Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) and think tanks for expert involvement in policymaking for global public goods in developing countries. The KPP received a total funding of £9 million from the DFID (£7 m from the GDPP and £2 m from the DFID India) from 2012 to 2016. The programme has three objectives:

  1. “Gathering and uptake of evidence on issues central to India’s national development that have potential for replication in Low Income Countries (LICs);
  2. Gathering and uptake of evidence on issues central to India’s national development having significant impacts on global poverty; and
  3. Promote sharing of Indian evidence, best practice and expertise with LICs in order to facilitate policy review.”

Over 55 partners, including UN organisations, international and national NGOs, and academic institutions, are involved in the implementation of the project. The KPP covers five major work streams, which are nationally focused but have the potential to be developed into India–Global activities: food security, resource scarcity and climate change; trade and investment; health and disease control; women and girls; and development effectiveness. One of the areas of knowledge partnership under “food security, resource scarcity and climate change” is applying Indian agribusiness in Africa. The major achievements of this triangular cooperation include the KPP–India–Ethiopia partnership on economic empowerment and the KPP–DFID-IRENA partnership on “Building Energy Businesses” workshops with business entrepreneurs and inventors from Asia and Africa, and there were findings from the Pharmaceutical Quality Systems with respect to exports from India to Africa.[26]

The Global Research Partnership on Food and Nutrition Security, Health and Women (GRP). This project facilitates capacity-building and the brainstorming of ideas, with a focus on food security, health and women. The DFID is to provide up to £7 million from 2014 to 2021,[27] to fund research partnerships between the UK, India and LICs, to address global development challenges by providing new technologies and approaches.[28] This partnership will be co-funded by the Research Councils UK (RCUK) and the GoI.

The Innovative Ventures and Technology for Development (INVENT). This programme focuses on the technological and business innovations for the poor in eight low-income states of India and in developing countries in Africa and South Asia. The INVENT plan gets maximum funding out of all other strategies, i.e. up to £38 million, out of which the DFID has agreed to provide up to £5 million in the form of technical assistance from 2013 to 2021.[29] As of December 2018, INVENT has developed 127 startups and has committed to invest INR 310 million, against the goal of 160 startups and INR 500 million. The major sectors covered by the programme were agriculture and allied; healthcare; livelihood and skill development; and education and energy.[30]

The India–UK Global Partnership Programme on Development (GPPD): This programme has a funding of £8 million by the DFID from 2018 to 2023,[31] to support India’s contribution in delivering global goals and advancing global public goods in other developing nations. The GPPD comes under the KPP. The broad areas of focus are low carbon, renewable (solar) energy-led green growth, climate-resilient infrastructure, digital/tech-led innovative solutions for development and gender equality, and emerging Indian good practice. The first year of the project–i.e. as of April 2019—has focused on creating partnerships and developing policies with EXIM Bank of India, Observer Research Foundation, Research and Information System for Developing Countries and the World Bank.[32]

In the UK–India cooperation, the DFID plays the crucial role of a facilitator or a broker of partnerships between India and the African continent. In triangular cooperation, the identification of the demands of the partner countries is essential, which are then channelled through an emerging donor, and DFID makes this happen.


The Asia–Africa Growth Corridor (AAGC) picked up momentum after the third India–Africa Forum Summit (IAFS) held in New Delhi in October 2015.

Like India, Japan had already been engaging with Africa through its five-yearly Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD), launched in 1993 to promote Africa’s development. An international conference led by the Japanese government and co-sponsored by the UN, the UNDP, the African Union Commission (AUC) and the World Bank, the TICAD marks the origin of Japan’s interest in Africa.[33]

To improve development assistance in Africa, Prime Ministers Narendra Modi and Shinzo Abe issued the AAGC declaration in 2016, based on the four pillars of development and cooperation projects, quality infrastructure and institutional connectivity, enhancing capacities and skills, and people-to-people partnership.[34] The AAGC aims “to promote industrial corridors and industrial networks in Asia as well as in Africa.” Since 2016, premier policy institutions—in consultation with their respective governments—have worked on developing the idea, e.g. the Research and Information System for Developing Countries (RIS) in India, the Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA) in Jakarta, and the Institute of Developing Economies–Japan External Trade Organisation (IDE-JETRO) in Japan.

The India–Japan Triangular Cooperation with African countries is based on a B2B (business-to-business) approach.[35] It has been argued that in the short term, the B2B approach is easier and more useful than the B2G (business-to-government). B2G requires government funding to execute projects, while B2B can be led by private investors and foreign-direct investments. A diversified B2B engagement of Indo–Japanese companies can be an effective medium for enabling the expansion of Indian and Japanese businesses in Africa. By engaging with the companies that have been operating in the African subcontinent and establishing a mutuality of trust, Indian companies can facilitate a speedy expansion. The networking efforts by the JETRO and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII)—by virtue of meeting in India, Uganda and Nigeria—are testaments to the importance of the same. In the medium term, the focus of the AAGC must be on infrastructure projects.[36] Both India and Japan are building infrastructure in Africa, which requires coordination amongst the agencies involved in both nations.

India and Japan work together to promote peace, stability and prosperity—through economic growth and development—in the Indo-Pacific, including Africa. Towards this goal, a small and medium enterprise (SME) development seminar was organised in Kenya. Further, a collaborative project is being considered in the area of health service, e.g. developing a cancer hospital in Kenya. Both India and Japan acknowledge that their development cooperation in the Indo-Pacific region will help unlock the potential for an equitable, constructive and forward-looking change in the region and contribute to Africa’s socio-economic development. The two countries have also embraced the idea of expanding cooperation in human resource development, capacity-building, healthcare, livelihood, water, sanitation and digital space, as well as broadening access to education and healthcare, to help Indo-Pacific citizens realise their potential for development.[37]

The approach adopted by the IAFS and TICAD is pan-African, focusing on priorities such as Agenda 2063, the Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA) and the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAAP).[38] The AAGC has three objectives:

  1. Advancing both India’s and Japan’s individual and mutual outreach towards the African continent, focused mainly on developing “quality infrastructure investment”;
  2. Linking Africa with the Indian Ocean Region within an intercontinental context of Asia-Africa cooperation, whereby Japan and India are envisaged as playing leading roles, with African countries also becoming a part of the decision-making process; and
  3. Shaping a liberal and value-based Indo-Pacific order as per their proposed Vision 2025.[39]

Over the years, India’s engagement in development cooperation activities has made an impact. The UK and the US are developed and strong economies, with a firm place in the global development arena. In terms of track-one diplomacy, there is a similarity in both the triangular cooperation programmes. There is weak government-to-government engagement, paving the way for non-state and parastatal actors, e.g. CSOs, think tanks, research institutes and the private sector.[40] This indicates that while proposals are made at the government level, they are implemented through non-state actors. Even the India–Japan cooperation is based on a B2B approach, which maintains a strategic distance from administration communication.

India and Japan began working on the Africa path much before the UK and the US were involved, with the India–Japan dialogue on Africa running for three years from 2010. However, there is yet to be an official proclamation about a triangular collaboration programme between India and Japan. Since the AAGC has created a structure for triangular cooperation, efforts must now be focused on efficiency and sustainability. It is likely that the two nations will declare the association in the next five years. It is noteworthy that the India–Japan cooperation is focused heavily on ‘quality infrastructure’ in Africa, to provide alternatives for African countries that have significant Chinese economic presence through the Belt and Road Initiative.

The India–US triangular cooperation and the India–UK triangular cooperation have similar divisions, i.e. energy and climate, women empowerment, health, investment, nutrition and education—and both their agreements cover almost all sectors crucial for economic development. However, the India–US agreements are less comprehensive, with agriculture emerging as a niche sector and several projects still in the pipeline. By comparison, the India–UK programme is much more diversified, with visible results on the ground, e.g. SNHP, INVENT and GKP. For each segment, the DFID has set out the strategies to spike development in both the developing nations.

The two collaborations also differ in terms of the scale of operations. The India–UK cooperation receives substantial funding for most of its programmes, while the India–US cooperation has limited funding. One shortcoming in the India–UK Triangular cooperation is that India is not involved in the funding of the programmes, which is done mostly by the DFID India and GDPP. In the FTF-TT programme, meanwhile, India is an active participant, involved in both the funding and the implementation, with MANAGE being an active contributor.

Another point of comparison is the swiftness with which policies are implemented under each collaboration. The India–Japan cooperation has been the slowest, since there is no institutionalised triangular cooperation between the two. The US–India cooperation is better, with two agreements that have been formulated and signed by the representatives of both the countries. However, no action has been taken except the FTF-TT programme. The India–UK triangular cooperation has outperformed both India–Japan and India–US, having addressed all the demands of the African continent in the field of development assistance.

Table 1: India’s Triangular Cooperation with the US, UK and Japan in Africa: An Overview

Track I Diplomacy


Existence of a weak government-to-government dimension


Existence of a weak government-to-government dimension


Existence of a weak government-to-government dimension

Scale of operations


Only the FTF training programme running


Huge amount of funds available for each project running under this cooperation

Can’t Say

No institutionalised triangular cooperation between the two nations


Not diverse

Other projects still in the pipeline

Very diverse

Programme running for almost every sector of development

Not diverse

Singular focus on quality infrastructure and equal business partnerships



Agreements formulated, but no action except the FTF-TT programme


Almost all demands of the African continent addressed, in the field of development assistance


No institutionalised triangular cooperation between the two nations

Triangular cooperation offers benefits such as cost-effective development due to the pooling of resources, allowing the nations to learn from each other’s strengths and experiences. However, the broader segments need more focus for improved growth. A constant capacity-building exercise is ongoing, by way of emerging donor countries learning from traditional donor countries and partner countries learning from emerging donor countries.

In a triangular cooperation, all three nations involved have different motivations for participating. There is a need for increased coordination between all the actors. Relatively, the US and Japan have a much better political relationship with India, but the UK enjoys better development ties. However, in all three collaborations, there is significant scope for improvement. The imperative is to implement all the proposed projects. Further, India must focus on the primary stages, when the policies are conceptualised, so that it can be actively involved in the planning process along with traditional donor countries.


[1] Ambassador Shyam Saran, “India’s Foreign Aid: Prospects and Challenges”, Research and Information System For Developing Countries, 2014.

[2] Saroj Kumar Mohanty, “Shaping Indian development cooperation: India’s mission approach in a theoretical framework,” in India’s Approach to Development Cooperation, ed. Sachin Chaturvedi and Anthea Mulakala (New York: Routledge, 2016), 1.

[3] Adriana Erth al Abdenur and João Moura Estevão Marques Da Fonseca, “The North’s Growing Role in South–South Cooperation: keeping the foothold”, Third World Quarterly (2013) 34:8, 1475–1491.

[4]Bogota Statement Towards Effective and Inclusive Development Partnerships, 2010”, The Steering Committee, The High Level Event on South-South Cooperation and Capacity Development, The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

[5]The 2010 UN Secretary General’s Report on development cooperation”, Economic and Social Council, United Nations.

[6]Implementing BAPA+40 – What is next for Triangular Cooperation?” United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation, United Nations, 10 October 2019.

[7]Framework of operational guidelines on United Nations support to South-South and triangular cooperation, 2012”, South-South Cooperation for Development, High-level Committee on South-South Cooperation, Seventeenth Session, United Nations.

[8] Cheryl McEwan and Emma Mawdsley, “Trilateral Development Cooperation: Power and Politics in Emerging Aid Relationships”, International Institute of Social Studies (2012): 2.

[9] Sebastian Paulo, “India as a Partner in Triangular Development Cooperation: Prospects for the India-UK Partnership for Global Development”, Observer Research Foundation, 2018.

[10]Vision Statement for the U.S.-India Strategic Partnership-‘Chalein Saath Saath: Forward Together We Go’”, Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, 29 September 2014.

[11]Joint Statement during the visit of Prime Minister to USA”, Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, 30 September 2014.

[12]US-India Joint Statement”, 30 September 2014, Office of the Press Secretary, The White House: President Barack Obama.

[13] SDG-17 brings out efforts to put all the other 16 goals together. An ambitious and interconnected global development agenda requires a new global partnership. This includes financing development, connecting people through information technology networks, international trade flows and strengthening data collection and analysis.

[14]Joint Statement during the Visit of President of USA to India, ‘सााँझा प्रयास-सबका विकास – ‘Shared Effort; Progress for All’”, Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, 25 January 2015.

[15]India and United States Renew Triangular Development Cooperation in Asia and Africa”, Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, 29 March 2019.

[16]Launching of ‘Feed the Future- India Triangular Training Program (FTF-ITT)’”, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Government of India, 25 July 2016.

[17] “Feed The Future India Triangular Training Program (FTF ITT),” National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare, Government of India, 2019,

[18] Ravi Nandi and Muttanna Muttanna, “Technological Inspirations from India: Success Stories of Feed The Future India Triangular Training (FTF ITT) Program”, National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management, 2018.

[19] Sebastian Paulo, op. cit.

[20]Supporting Indian Trade and Investment for Africa (SITA Africa)”, Department for International Development, Government of the United Kingdom.

[21]Supporting Indian Trade and Investment for Africa”, International Trade Centre and The Department for International Development.

[22] Sebastian Paulo, op. cit.

[23]DFID-TERI Partnership for Clean Energy Access and Improved Policies for Sustainable Development”, Department for International Development, Government of the United Kingdom.

[24] The Energy and Resources Institute, “DFID-TERI Partnership for Clean Energy Access : Africa Update”, April 2015, New Delhi.

[25]India: Strategic Health and Nutrition Partnership”, Department for International Development, Government of the United Kingdom.

[26] “Knowledge Partnership Programme,” IPE Global, 2014,

[27] “Global Research Partnership Programme (GRP),” Department for International Development, Government of the United Kingdom,

[28]Global Research Partnership on Food and Nutrition Security, Health & Women (GRP)”, Department for International Development, Government of the United Kingdom.

[29]Innovative Ventures & Technologies for Development (INVENT)”, Department for International Development, Government of the United Kingdom.

[30]Innovative Ventures and Technologies for Development (INVENT) Program”, Technology Development Board, Government of India, December 2018.

[31]The India-UK Global Partnership Programme on Development”, Department for International Development, Government of the United Kingdom.

[32]The India-UK Global Partnership Programme on Development”, Department for International Development, Government of the United Kingdom.

[33]The Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD)”, The Seventh Tokyo International Conference on African Development, International Relations Division International Affairs Bureau, Yokohama, 2019.

[34]Asia Africa Growth Corridor (AAGC)”, Research and Information System For Developing Countries, 2019.

[35] Ambassador (Retd.) Gurjit Singh, “India, Japan and the Asia Africa Growth Corridor”, Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relations, 17 January 2019.

[36] Jagannath Panda, “The Asia-Africa Growth Corridor: An India-Japan Arch in the Making?” Institute for Security and Development Policy, August 2017.

[37] Prime Minister of India, “India-Japan Fact Sheets: India-Japan Development Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific, including Africa”, Government of India, 29 October 2018.

[38] Ambassador (Retd.) Gurjit Singh, op. cit.

[39] Jagannath Panda, op. cit.

[40] Sebastian Paulo, op. cit.

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Prachi Mittal

Prachi Mittal

Prachi Mittal was an Research Assistant with ORFs Centre for New Economic Diplomacy(CNED). Her research focuses on development economics Indian economy and the Sustainable Development ...

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