MonitorsPublished on Oct 10, 2016
Energy News Monitor | Volume XIII; Issue 17 | Fuels News Commentary

Fuels News Commentary: September 2016


The hydro-power sector in India received an unexpected jolt from India’s foreign policy this month. India declared that it will accelerate building of new hydropower plants on the three western tributaries of the Indus River that flow into Pakistan in response to a terrorist attack that killed many of India’s soldiers.  Article III of the IWT that governs the distribution of waters of the Indus river between India and Pakistan permits India to use waters of the Indus, Jhelum and Chenab for domestic use, non-consumptive use, agricultural use and generation of hydro-electric power with the caveat that such use will not ‘interfere’ and ‘let flow all the waters of the western rivers’. This means that the hydro-projects have to be the so-called ROR projects. ROR projects have proved to be less attractive economically than they originally thought to be when the sector was opened to private investment in the early 2000s. The more worrying signal is that the supposedly water tight Treaty is now leaking and spilling into the primary domains of conflict between the two countries. The IWT only considered ‘stocks’ of water which could be subjected to sovereign powers of control, autonomy and legitimacy. The challenge today is ‘flows’ of water whose trans-boundary nature does not easily lend itself to sovereign powers of control or autonomy. Flows are threatened not just by manmade obstructions but also by volume of precipitation, snow fall and glacier-melt which are factors over which only nature has control. The ecological consequences of exploiting provisions in the IWT, even if permissible, may be unsustainable especially in the light of variability in water flows (or climate change as some would prefer to call it). The Government is also reported to be considering reclassifying large hydro power plants as renewable projects as this could help India achieve clean power capacity of 225 GW by 2022. Currently only small projects (up to 25 MW) are classified as renewable projects. Of the 305 GW installed power generation capacity, 43 GW comes from large hydro projects and 44.23 GW from other renewable power generation capacities. qc_fact Since Fukushima, Kudankulam has been in the news for the wrong reasons but this month it was in the news for the right reasons. Unit 1 of the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant operated continuously for than 200 days for the first time since it was commissioned in 2014, generating about 4,700 MU of electricity. The Russian suppliers can look forward to brighter prospects for unit 2 and also the construction for units 3 & 4. Meanwhile it was also reported that US nuclear suppliers had not given up on India and are doing their best to reduce risk exposure for their potential investment in the sector. Apparently the U.S. Export-Import Bank is negotiating a loan for an $8-9 billion loan to finance six Westinghouse Electric nuclear reactors under the infamous nuclear deal signed between the USA and India in 2008.  India is also reported to be negotiating with South Korean nuclear suppliers. India has set itself a target of 63 GW nuclear capacity by 2032. Solar manufacturers in India are reportedly not worried by WTO's upholding of the US complaint against domestic content requirement in India’s solar projects. This is understandable given that the ruling favours import of solar modules and other components into India. This is something that most solar sector players are indulging in anyway. However they may be worried if India was to retaliate and impose anti-dumping duty on foreign modules as this would raise the cost for Indian developers. As India-made modules are unable to compete with foreign ones, both on price and technology agencies like NTPC and Solar Corp of India have been holding separate auctions with a DCR provision, where the subsidy provided by the government as well as winning tariffs are significantly higher than in open auctions.

Rest of the World

More good news for Russian nuclear suppliers as construction of Bushehr-2 in Iran with superior technology was reported to have started. Reduction of the risk of core melt down to 1,000 times, reduction of the risk of radioactive contamination down to 100 times, increasing the plant life from 40 years to 60 years, and increasing efficiency up to over 90 percent, were among the features of the new units at Bushehr. China, which was known for building one coal power each week in the last decade is now in the news with plans to build roughly one nuclear plant every two months for the next ten years (or 60 nuclear plants in the next 10 years). The 60 new plants would include between six and 10 CAP1000 reactors, which are Chinese versions of the AP1000 made by Toshiba-owned Westinghouse. The Chinese nuclear sector was also in the news on Britain's decision to go ahead with the Hinkley C nuclear project in which state-owned China General Nuclear Power Corp will have a 33 percent stake.  Many in the UK are uncomfortable with the idea of China’s involvement in the nuclear industry of the UK. But there was some setback for the nuclear industry.  Japan was reported to be considering closing down its prototype fast-breeder nuclear reactor.  About $10 billion of public money has been injected into the facility, but Japan's nuclear regulator declared its operator unfit following years of accidents. The 280 MW reactor was designed to burn plutonium refined from spent fuel at conventional reactors to create more fuel than it consumes. Fast breeder reactors are part of India’s three stage programme. India has invested in a prototype fast breeder reactor in Kalpakkam. A philanthropic group was reported to have launched $80 million fund to expand energy efficiency in developing countries just ahead of Montreal Protocol negotiations.  Increasing energy efficiency, specifically in the cooling sector, is seen to be crucial to development. Cooling (such as in air conditioning and refrigeration), the primary user of HFCs, drives as much as 40 to 60 percent of peak summer energy load and is expected to grow substantially. Finally Glencore a mining and trading giant declared that renewable energy will not be cost competitive with fossil fuels until 2050.  This must be interesting news for those who have turned tariff quotations by solar power generators into a spectator sport. The contest is presumed to be between the sun and coal.  When the quote of $0.0242/kWh (less than ` 1.3/kWh) tariff from Jinko Solar of China to Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority was reported this month, the sun was said to have beaten coal. The reality is that tariff is just one part of the high transaction cost of harnessing solar power.  But these are not attractive enough for the headlines.


IOC plans to lay 2k km LPG pipeline from Kandla to Gorakhpur

October 4: Indian Oil Corp (IOC) is planning to lay a 2,000 km pipeline to carry liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) from its Kandla import terminal on the west coast to Gorakhpur in the deep east to cater to growing demand for cooking gas in the country. The operator of the largest liquid hydrocarbon pipeline network in the country submitted an ‘expression of interest’ to the downstream regulator, the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board, to lay, build and operate a common carrier LPG pipeline. The pipeline could cost ` 5,000-6,000 crore to build, according to industry executives. In the first five months of the current financial year, India’s LPG consumption grew 10.5% over that a year ago, a rate that’s likely to sustain as the government aims to expand cooking gas consumer base 60% in three years. Of the 8.4 million metric tonnes consumed between April and August, just a little more than half was produced locally. The expected growth in local demand will, therefore, increase India’s dependence on import. The company plans to raise the capacity of its LPG import terminal at Kandla to 5 million metric tonnes per annum (MMTPA) from the current 1.5 MMTPA. The proposed pipeline comprising 1,841 km of mainline and 146 km branch lines to Ujjain and Varanasi will have a carrying capacity of 3.75 MMTPA. The pipeline will have intermediate pump stations at Koyali refinery and at Indore. It will deliver LPG to bottling plants at Ahmedabad, Ujjain, Bhopal, Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Lucknow and Gorakhpur. Source: The Economic Times

Jharkhand becomes first state to implement DBT in Kerosene

October 4: Jharkhand has become the first state in the country to implement Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) in Kerosene. The scheme is being implemented in four identified districts of the State from October 1. These districts are Chatra, Hazaribagh, Khunti and Jamtara. The oil ministry said that under the DBT Scheme, PDS kerosene is being sold at non-subsidised price and the subsidy is being transferred to consumers directly into their bank accounts. This initiative is aimed at rationalising subsidy and plugging the leakages. Source: Business Standard

IOC lines up Rs 180 bn to raise Panipat refinery capacity

October 4: Indian Oil Corp (IOC) plans to invest Rs 18,000 crore to raise capacity of its Panipat refinery in Haryana to 25 million tonnes (MT) by 2020, larger than previously planned. IOC had previously planned to raise capacity of Panipat refinery from 15 MT to 20.2 MT, but now it is looking at raising the capacity straightway to 25 MT. IOC owns and operates 11 out of India's 23 refineries with a combined refining capacity of 80.7 MT per annum. The company will shortly take up investment approval for the Panipat expansion as well as that of capacity upgrade at Koyali refinery in Gujarat and Mathura unit in Uttar Pradesh. Source: The Economic Times

Here’s why 25 mn consumers will lose LPG subsidy

October 4: Around 2.5 crore domestic LPG consumers would be denied subsidy for their failure to link their bank accounts with the unique identification number Aadhaar. While subsidy payments to some 5 crore consumers have been put on hold since July 1 in the absence of the seeding of Aadhaar with bank accounts, only half of these households have since produced the UID numbers to be eligible for subsidy. All consumers without Aadhaar will be denied subsidy with retrospective effect from July 1. Currently, 16.5 crore households or over 90% of the LPG consumer base of over 18 crore receive subsidy for the fuel. The government managed to weed out 3 crore bogus household LPG connections via the direct benefit transfer or PAHAL scheme during the past two years. Oil Minister Dharmendra Pradhan maintained that his government was not against LPG subsidy, but would like to restrict the same to the really needy. The government left no stone unturned to stop leakages of subsidy and made better use of technology towards this end. The Centre had asked oil marketing companies (OMCs) — Indian Oil, Bharat Petroleum and Hindustan Petroleum — not to transfer LPG subsidy to the bank accounts of eligible households unless their accounts are seeded with the unique identification number. Source: The Financial Express qc_Good

Moody's pegs oil, gas sector outlook to core earnings

October 3: Moody's could raise its outlook on the global integrated oil and gas sector to positive from stable if its core earnings grow by more than 5 percent a year over the next 12 to 18 months, the ratings agency said. However, a 5 percent or greater decline in earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) would lead the ratings agency to change its outlook to negative. The sector's EBITDA is at its lowest level in 10 years due to weak crude oil prices. But Moody's said sector earnings should improve from recent historic lows to stabilise over the next 12 to 18 months as higher oil prices and lower operating costs improve profitability, the agency said. The sector will continue to face several challenges as oil prices are expected to remain in the range of $40-60 a barrel, Moody's said. Source: Reuters

Govt to ask RIL to pay for migrated ONGC gas

October 1: The government will seek compensation from the Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) for producing natural gas that migrated from an adjoining block of Oil and Natural Gas Corp (ONGC). Besides, the oil ministry will conduct an internal inquiry into any lapses by the state-owned company. Oil Minister Dharmendra Pradhan said his ministry had accepted the proposal by a committee led by AP Shah that had recommended compensation be sought from RIL for the ‘unjust benefit’ it received through migration of gas from ONGC's block in the Krishna-Godavari basin to RIL fields. The Shah panel, set up on December 15, 2015, had submitted its report on August 31. RIL’s D1 and D3 fields had estimated reserves of 80.70 billion cubic meters (BCM), while ONGC’s Godavari-PML had 14.21 BCM of reserves and KG-D5 another 11.86 BCM. Source: Business Standard

ONGC to invest $5.1 bn in 4 yrs in east coast oil gas asset

September 30: Oil and Natural Gas Corp (ONGC) will invest Rs 340.12 billion ($5.11 billion) in four years to develop cluster 2 of east coast deep-water block, the company said. These fields are expected to reach a net peak production of 77,000 barrels per day of crude oil and 16.29 million metric standard cubic metres per day of gas by 2021/22 fiscal year, the company had said. Source: Reuters

PM Modi approves acquisition of stake in LLC Taas-Yuryakh and JSC Vankorneft

September 28: The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA), chaired by the Prime Minister (PM) Narendra Modi, has given its approval to Oil India Ltd (OIL), Indian Oil Corp (IOC) and Bharat Petro Resources Ltd (BPRL) for acquiring 23.9 percent stake in JSC Vankorneft and 29.9 percent stake in LLC Taas-Yuryakh from M/s Rosneft Oil Company (Rosneft), the National Oil Company (NOC) of Russian Federation (Russia). The acquisition of stake in Vankorneft will provide 6.56 million metric ton of oil equivalent (MMTOE) and 29.9 percent stake in Taas-Yuryakh will provide 0.5 MMTOE initially and 1.5 MMTOE by 2019, according to a statement released by CCEA. Indian Companies will be paying $ 2,020.35 million for acquiring stake in Vankorneft and $ 1,242 million for acquiring stake in Taas-Yuryakh. Source: The Economic Times


Mahanagar Gas cuts CNG, PNG prices by up to Rs 1.60

October 3: Mahanagar Gas announced reduction in CNG price by Rs 1.60 per kg and domestic PNG prices by Rs 1.01 per standard cubic meter (scm). The new rates follow the reduction in the prices of domestically produced natural gas by the government. Accordingly, revised prices of CNG and domestic PNG will be Rs 39.97 per kg and Rs 23.92 per scm respectively in the megapolis. Source: Business Standard

ONGC, Oil India making losses on natural gas production

October 2: Oil and Natural Gas Corp (ONGC) and Oil India Ltd (OIL) are making losses on natural gas production after the government cut rates for the fourth consecutive time to bring down selling price to below the cost of production. Price of natural gas produced by ONGC, OIL and Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) locally was cut by 18% to $2.5 per million British thermal unit based on its gross heat value for six month period beginning 1 October. On net heat value basis, the price will be $2.78. For OIL, the cost of production, without taking into account the return on capital, comes to about $3.06. Source: Livemint

CNG, PNG prices cut in Delhi NCR by IGL

October 2: Indraprastha Gas Ltd (IGL) has cut prices of automobile fuel Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and household piped natural gas (PNG) in Delhi-National Capital Region (NCR). The third price cut in less than a year follows the centre’s latest move to reduce domestic natural gas prices 20 percent to $2.50 per unit for six months effective 1 October. The revision in prices would result in a decrease of Rs 1.40 per kg in the consumer price of CNG in Delhi and Rs 1.60 per kg in the consumer price of CNG in Noida, Greater Noida and Ghaziabad. The new consumer price of Rs 35.45 per kg in Delhi and Rs 40.60 per kg in Noida, Greater Noida & Ghaziabad would be effective from tonight. The price of CNG in Delhi remains the lowest in the entire country. The company has reduced domestic PNG prices. The consumer price of PNG to Delhi households is being reduced by Rs 1 per standard cubic meter (scm) from Rs 24 per scm to Rs 23 per scm. Due to differential tax structure in Uttar Pradesh, the applicable price of domestic PNG to households in Noida, Greater Noida and Ghaziabad would be Rs 24.35 per scm. It is being reduced by Rs 1.15 per scm from the existing Rs 25.50 per scm. Source: The Economic Times

Kerala CM promises all support to GAIL project

October 2: Kerala Chief Minister (CM) Pinarayi Vijayan has pitched for time-bound implementation of the much-delayed GAIL pipeline project in Kerala, saying it was “essential” to ensure “pollution-free” and “sustainable development” in the state. He said it was not proper to curtail development in the name of pollution and usage of environment-friendly fuel like CNG was a solution to this. The state should be connected to GAIL’s natural gas grid to get CNG at a cheaper rate, he said. The grid will be connected with LNG Petronet at Kochi. The 900 km gas pipeline project of GAIL, passing through Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, has been facing a delay due to land acquisition issues in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. In Kerala, of the 550 km stretch, only about 44 km inside Ernakulam city has been completed so far. Tamil Nadu and Karnataka together account for about 384 km of the project. Two pipelines, one from Kochi to Mangaluru passing through the coastal districts of Kerala and another connecting Bengaluru and Kochi, are to be laid. Protests from the residents of the areas through which the pipelines would pass have caused the delay. Source: The Hindu Business Line

Global gas prices prompt India to cut domestic rates by 18 percent

September 30: India has cut the price of locally-produced natural gas for the fourth consecutive time, tracking a global decline in rates of the fuel. Domestic gas prices will be cut by 18 percent for the six months beginning October 1 to $2.5 per million British thermal units based on its gross heat value, the oil ministry’s Petroleum Planning and Analysis Cell said. The government had fixed the price at $3.06 per million British thermal unit (Btu) for the six months ending. The move will dent profits at explorers such as Reliance Industries Ltd. and Oil & Natural Gas Corp (ONGC), while benefiting city gas distributors and fertilizer producers. It may affect ONGC’s plans to boost domestic oil and gas output as per Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s target of cutting India’s energy imports by 10 percent by 2022. India sets gas prices using a formula based on U.S., Canadian, U.K. and Russian rates. The government also announced a ceiling price of $5.3 per million Btu for natural gas extracted from difficult fields that start production from this year. The cap is effective for the six months to March for fields in ultra-deep areas having high temperature or pressure. Oil Minister Dharmendra Pradhan said that the government will stick to the current formula and there is no plan for setting a floor price. The price for the domestic gas is now at less than half the price of liquefied natural gas in the Singapore spot market. The weekly spot price for LNG in the island nation was $5.71 per million Btu. Source: Bloomberg

Poor households in J&K to get free cooking gas

September 29: Oil Minister Dharmendra Pradhan inaugurated a scheme to provide free liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), or cooking gas, connection to poor households in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) and said the government is going to release one lakh connections in the next 15 days. Pradhan said that a bottling plant would be constructed at Kargil, while the capacity of the Leh bottling plant would be augmented. The state now has 4 bottling plants. The scheme was launched by Chief Minister Mehbooba Mufti. Source: Business Standard

IGL to set up CGD network in Rewari

September 29: Indraprastha Gas Ltd (IGL) has been authorized by Petroleum & Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB) to lay City Gas Distribution (CGD) network in the geographical area of Rewari in Haryana, M Ravindran, Chairman, IGL said. He said that IGL is fully geared up to seize the emerging opportunities in the CGD sector. Referring to addition of 75,000 new domestic PNG customers by IGL in 2015-16, Mr Ravindran gave an overview of the marketing activities being undertaken by IGL to give boost to PNG segment. He said that IGL has been making conscious efforts to enhance customer experience by upgrading its services while leveraging technologies to its advantage. Source: The Economic Times

Enron’s India relic comes back to life with record LNG purchases

September 28: Ratnagiri Gas & Power Pvt, which took over the Indian power plant and liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal of defunct Enron Corp. called Dabhol Power Co., plans to use the facility to import record LNG volumes in the year to March 31. GAIL (India) Ltd has purchased a cargo from Nigeria to restart imports after halting shipments in May because of monsoon rains. The Dabhol terminal, south of Mumbai in the western state of Maharashtra, has so far imported 45 LNG cargoes, including 22 shipments last financial year and 10 cargoes the year before, according to GAIL. The state-run distributor sells the gas to customers using its pipeline network. The Dabhol terminal’s volume jump comes as Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government seeks to more than double natural gas’s share in the nation’s energy mix in five years. Source: Bloomberg

GAIL buys three LNG cargoes for Nov-Dec

September 28: GAIL (India) Ltd has bought three cargoes of liquefied natural gas (LNG) for deliveries in November and December, traders said. The state-run firm was seeking one cargo for October and two each in November and December. GAIL has bought two cargoes for November from Shell and GAIL Global (Singapore) Pte Ltd, the trading subsidiary of the Indian firm. The cargoes have been purchased at prices of $5.75-$6 per million British thermal unit, traders said. Source: Reuters


India to cut down coal imports by 15 MT in next six months

October 4: Coal Minister Piyush Goyal announced that Coal India Ltd (CIL) has set a target to replace around 15 million tonnes of imported coal with domestic coal in the next six months. Rooftop solar will not only provide energy security but will also give support to thousands of people living in areas inaccessible to grid-based power supply, he said. Source: The Economic Times

Coal shortage over, UP overcomes power crisis

October 4: The Uttar Pradesh (UP) government claimed of having overcome the power crisis originated out of coal shortage at its 2,420 Mw Anpara power plant. The UP Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam (UPRVUN) said that but for one unit of 500 MW, all other six units have started working. UPRVUNL said only unit number 7 of 500 MW is shut down, while the rest have been fired up and synchronized with the grid. The shortage of coal at the state owned power plant had partially derailed the power supply to the state. While the demand has been to the tune of around 15000 MW, the state was in the position to wheel in around 12000 MW leaving a gap of around 3000 MW. Source: The Economic Times

Coal ministry asks environment ministry to expedite green nod to CIL washeries

October 3: Coal ministry has asked the environment ministry to expedite the process of green clearances to Coal India Ltd (CIL) washeries so that the company can provide quality coal to its customers. In a meeting, Coal Minister Piyush Goyal requested Minister of State for Environment, Forest and Climate Change Anil Madhav Dave to hasten the process of green nod to washeries. The government had earlier said that challenge is not quantity but quality of the fossil fuel. Setting up washeries at faster rate will hasten the coal washing process and provide quality coal to CIL customers. During the meeting, the coal ministry brought to the notice of Dave the forest area issue with regard to one to two washeries. Coal washing is a process of separation mainly based on difference in specific gravity of coal and associated impurities like shale, sand and stones to get relatively pure marketable coal without changing its physical properties. The country has 15 washeries with a capacity of 38 million tonnes per annum. The coal ministry had earlier this year informed a Parliamentary panel that it will establish 15 coal washeries, which will be made operational by September next year. Source: Business Standard

Govt invites applications for allotting 7 coal blocks

October 3: Coal ministry has invited applications from power generation firms for allotment of seven coal blocks, including Deocha-Pachami block in West Bengal having 2,102 million tonnes (MT) reserves. The applications are invited for seven coal mines including Deocha-Pachami mine in West Bengal with coal reserves of 2,102 MT, Ghogarpalli in Odisha having reserves of 1,163 MT, Jadunathpur mine in Odisha with reserves of 525 MT, Pokharia Paharpur mine in Jharkhand having reserves of 584.25 MT. The other blocks on offer are Behraband North Extn block in Madhya Pradesh having reserves of 174.87 MT and North Kathara Ph-I and Ph-II UG mine in Jharkhand with reserves of 305 MT. Source: Livemint

BHEL asked to modify power plants running on imported coal

October 2: Power and Coal Minister Piyush Goyal said the government has asked Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL) to find a design to modify the power plants, running on imported coal, set up in the past. He said that the Narendra Modi government has been trying to increase domestic coal production and to replace the imported coal by domestic coal. Source: The Pioneer qc_BAD

CIL production grows 0.2 percent in Apr-Sep

October 1: Coal India Ltd (CIL) reported that its coal production grew by only 0.2 percent to 230.06 million tonnes (MT) in the April to September period as compared to 229.54 Mt of coal produced in the first six months of the last fiscal. CIL, which produces 84 percent of the country's coal, was targeting 255.11 MT of coal production during the first six months of the current fiscal. According to provisional data, the miner produced 35.24 MT in September achieving 85 percent of the target of producing 41.51 MT in the last month. The coal behemoth had produced 37.17 MT in the year-ago month. It also reported that its off-take during April-September period was down by 0.9 percent at 249.11 mt as against a target of 283.80 MT. The miner reported its off-take for September stood at 37.74 MT, achieving 88 percent of the target. In 2015-16, the state miner produced 538.75 MT of coal against a target of 550 MT and its off-take was at 534.5 MT. During the current fiscal, the coal production target has been pegged at 598.61 MT and coal production is expected to be 660.7 MT in 2017-18. The company envisaged production of 908.10 MT in 2019-20 with a CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) of 12.98 percent with respect to 2014-15. It said it would invest Rs 7,765 crore as capital expenditure and Rs 5,069 crore in various other projects in 2016-17. Source: Business Standard

‘Rise in coking coal prices may impact Tata Steel’s profits’

September 30: A sharp rise in coking coal prices globally can bring the profitability of Tata Steel (TSL) under pressure, Fitch Ratings said. TSL expects to ramp up output gradually and is targeting volume of 1 million tonnes per annum (MTPA) in 2016-17. Apart from higher sales, the new plant will improve TSL’s product-mix, as it specialises in producing high-grade flat products, the ratings agency said. Source: The Financial Express

National: Power

RBI rate cut to give a fillip to power investments

October 4: The latest decision by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to cut the repo rate by 25 base points (bps) will create greater investment opportunities for developers in the power sector, according to the industry. The rate cut – from 6.5 percent to 6.25 percent – is the first announced by the central bank in six months and is part of new RBI Governor Urjit Patel’s first Monetary Policy review. Source: The Economic Times

BSES festival offer in Delhi to give 'Tatkal' electric connections

October 3: To cater to the demands of the ongoing festival season, two power distribution companies (discoms) in the national capital -- BSES Rajdhani Power Ltd and BSES Yamuna Power Ltd -- have started providing "Tatkal", or immediate, electricity connections for both community and private festivities, BSES said. According to BSES, to get a "tatkal" temporary electricity connection, a consumer has to contact its call centre numbers 39999707 (BRPL) and 39999808 (BYPL), or visit the customer care centre at the division office and complete simple formalities. They can also apply online and make payment for the temporary connection on the company website Source: Business Standard

Planning Commission panel's approach created excess power capacity: Goyal

October 2: Power Minister Piyush Goyal blamed the erstwhile Planning Commission, which has been succeeded by Niti Aayog, for its approach of setting targets that led to a situation where companies "invested irrationally" to add capacities in the sector. With the tenure of the 12th Five Year Plan ending in 2017 and being replaced by Niti Aayog, Goyal said under the new dispensation, the states would be empowered to set their own targets instead of the Centre. He also criticised the Planning Commission for laying emphasis on imports of coal, citing shortfall in domestic production. Goyal's criticism of the Plan panel assumed significance in the wake of the utilities engaged thermal generation slowing down their coal offtake due to excess supply. Source: The Economic Times qc_Ugly

India great platform for power demand: Sembcorp

October 1: Describing India as a growth platform in power sector, a Singapore-based firm has said it will enhance its presence in the country to tap the ever-growing power market. Sembcorp Industries big push in India is 2,640 MW Sembcorp Gayatri Power Complex in Andhra Pradesh, which opened earlier this year. The $3 billion facility has the distinction of being the largest foreign direct investment-driven project on a single site in the thermal energy sector with two 1,320 MW supercritical coal-fired power plants. Sembcorp is bidding for a 500 MW long-term power purchase agreement (PPA) with Andhra Pradesh, where a new capital city Amaravati is being built. Source: The Economic Times

Punjab has doubled its power generation: Deputy CM

October 1: Punjab has doubled its power generation in the last nine years with the state now producing 12,392 MW, Deputy Chief Minister (CM) Sukhbir Singh Badal said. The average demand of Punjab is between 9000 MW to 11,500 MW, but it generates 37.69 percent surplus, he claimed. The Deputy CM claimed the Congress government had spent Rs 4937 crore on power generation and Rs 2544 crore on developing a power supply network from 2002-2007. Whereas, the SAD-BJP government, between 2007-15, has spend Rs 30,000 crore on increasing power generation, while Rs 12,309 crore was spent on developing a supply network, he said. Source: Business Standard

Essar Power commissions 60 MW power unit at Paradip

September 30: Essar Power Ltd (EPoL), part of the $27 billion Essar Group, announced it has commissioned a 60 MW unit comprising the first phase of its 120 MW Paradip power plant. The company’s total installed capacity now stands at 4,705 MW. Essar Power Ltd is among the largest private sector power producers. It owns power plants in India and Canada with a total generation capacity of 6,100 MW. Of this, 4,705 MW is operational. Of the total operational capacity, 3,105 MW is coal-based while 1,600 MW is gas-based. The operating plants in India are at Mahan, Hazira, Salaya, Vadinar and Paradip. Also, a 1,200 MW plant at Tori in Jharkhand is under development. Source: The Economic Times

Diwali may bring more light across UP

September 30: People of poll-bound Uttar Pradesh (UP) may expect a brighter Diwali this year as UP government gears up to increase power supply to rural and urban areas by four to two hours, respectively, around the festival of lights falling on October 30. Presently, rural and urban areas are scheduled to get between 12-14 hours and 18-22 hours, respectively, of power supply. This will be increased to 16-18 hours for rural and 22-24 hours for urban areas. A formal announcement is likely to be made by chief minister Akhilesh Yadav on shifting of State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) from Shakti Bhawan to a new building in Gomtinagar. The centre has been upgraded to keep a tab on real time power situation in the state. UP Power Corp Ltd (UPPCL) said all preparations for an increased power supply in the state will be completed by October-end. The state government seeks to wheel in more power only when the demand lessens significantly. As on date, while the demand is at the peak up to 15,000 MW, the UPPCL is able to provide around 13,000 MW, leaving a gap of around 2,000 MW. In fact, the rural areas are facing prolonged power cuts and the maximum power supply is in the range of around 10-12 hours. The same is with urban areas where power supply is to the tune of 18-22 hours. UPPCL admit increase in supply will be possible only when demand is in the range of 12,000 to 14,000 MW, which is possible from November. UPPCL said state government is looking up to not only state-owned power plants but also those of the private sector for a higher and efficient generation. While the UP Rajya Utpadan Nigam has set a target of around 4,000 MW from state owned power plants, the UPPCL expects to get around 5,000 MW just from private players. Source: The Times of India

Goyal wants local power equipment companies to help lower imports

September 30: Industry needs to innovate and redesign electrical equipment that can use the abundant domestic coal which has high fly ash content so as to reduce dependence on imports, Power Minister Piyush Goyal said. He said the country imports nearly $10 billion worth of electrical equipment and this needs to change. Goyal also said he has asked the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL) to redesign some of the boilers to take a larger intake of the high fly ash coal, rather than being dependent on cleaner coal from abroad. Goyal said he has also asked National Hydro Power Corp (NHPC) to innovate and look at technology to replace the existing 35 year-old equipment at its 690 MW Salal project in Jammu and Kashmir with higher capacity equipment to increase the output by 50-100 percent. Source: Business Standard

Rs 10 bn project to rid Gurgaon of blackouts

September 29: Gurgaon's chronic power woes could be a thing of the past in a little more than a year from now. A Rs 1,000 crore-plus transmission project is under way to raise electricity supply to the millennium city and its surrounding areas, home to scores of multinationals, call centres and manufacturing units, by 2,000-3,000 MW. The project, awarded to Sterlite Power, is part of the Jagdish Khattar government's efforts to turn Haryana into a zero-blackout state. The Sterlite project envisages laying four lines totalling 170 km and three high-power sub-stations to raise wheeling capacity to rid the area of generators and power cuts. The sub-stations would streng then the network in Gurgaon and connect other sub-stations located at Palwal, Rangla, Rajpur and adjoining areas of Meerpur Kurah in Haryana - all part of the inter-state transmission system. Besides augmenting power supply to residential areas, the project would also improve reliability of electricity supply for manufacturing and service sectors in the region and help generate jobs. Source: The Times of India

BRPL consumers can pay bills at Bank of Baroda branches

September 29: BSES Rajdhani Power Ltd (BPRL), one of the national capital's electricity distribution companies (discoms), said that its consumers will now be able to pay their bills at various branches of Bank of Baroda across the city. Announcing that the consumer's account will be updated on the same day as the payment, BSES said the arrangement will soon be extended to its sister Delhi discom BSES Yamuna Power Ltd. Source: Business Standard

Electricity department faces ` 90 mn losses every month due to line loss in Bijnor

September 28: With an increase in technical glitches and theft of electricity, line loss in Bijnor district is on the rise. While at this time of the year, the line loss was only 16% in 2015, it has crossed 23% this year. The electricity department is facing about ` 9 crore in losses every month. The department has planned to set up camps in the district wherein a target of getting 14,000 new connections in three months has been given. According to data with the superintendent engineer's office, there are 4.18 lakh consumers in Bijnor district, of which 3.31 lakh are for domestic use, 36,428 commercial and 43,966 connections are for tubewells, while according to the DPRO's office, there are a total of 7.5 lakh families in the district. About 50% of the families have no legal electricity connection. Source: The Times of India


Cumulative solar installations in India cross 8.6 GW

October 4: Cumulative solar installations in India have reached 8,643 MW as of September 2016 and so far, in the current year it has reached 3.8 GW, Mercom Capital said in a report. The total solar installation is likely to reach approximately 4.8 GW for the calendar year 2016. Four states have crossed the 1 GW solar installation mark. Out of the 8.6 GW installed so far, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh have had significant activity and account for 59 percent of total installations. India currently has 14 GW of solar projects in various stages of development and another 7 GW waiting to be auctioned. Solar installations are continuing to grow, even with a slowdown in power demand, a decline in capacity utilization among thermal projects, and the availability of cheap power on the power exchanges across the country. Source: The Economic Times

Railways, energy PSUs may fund India’s nuke plan

October 4: Indian Railways and state-owned companies in energy sector including Oil and Natural Gas Corp (ONGC), Indian Oil Corp (IOC) and NTPC Ltd could soon be funding the country’s nuclear energy expansion programme. Nuclear Power Corp of India Ltd (NPCIL) is in talks with cash-rich public sector undertakings in energy sector and the national transporter to float joint ventures for setting up nuclear power plants across the country. NPCIL is looking at leveraging equity from cash-rich PSUs in line with its targets to increase nuclear power generation in the country to 63 GW from the current installed capacity of 6,780 MW. Source: The Economic Times

US urges WTO to enforce report on India’s solar product policy

October 4: The United States (US) has said it will urge the World Trade Organisation (WTO) to enforce the panel and appellate reports that found India’s policies "discriminatory" against American solar products. The US Trade Representative also called for a special WTO meeting to adopt a compliance panel report that found the European Union guilty of maintaining illegal subsidies to Airbus. The WTO Appellate Body found in favour of the US in a dispute challenging India’s domestic content requirements for solar cells and modules under India’s National Solar Mission. Source: India Today

NHPC's 2 Sikkim plants extend PPA with buyers for 35 yrs

October 3: State-owned NHPC said that its two power plants in Sikkim -- 510 MW Teesta-V and 60 MW Rangit Power Station -- have extended power purchase agreements (PPA) with buyers for 35 years. NHPC, a hydropower major, generated 23404 million units of electricity in 2015-16. Source: Business Standard

Ratification of climate accord to bring more focus on India's renewable sector: Bridge to India

October 3: Ratification of climate accord would attract a much larger global scrutiny on the country’s ability to achieve yearly renewable targets and compliance with policies such as Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO), solar energy research firm Bridge to India said. India ratified the Paris climate accord becoming the 62nd country to do so. India accounts for 4.1% of global carbon emissions. Countries with 52% of global emissions have now ratified the agreement. With European Union, accounting for 12.1% of total global emission, expected to join shortly, the 55% threshold for the agreement to come into effect would be met and the agreement should come into force by November. As part of its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs), India has committed to a reduction in carbon emission intensity of its GDP by 33% to 35% by 2030 from 2005 levels. More pertinently for the power sector, India has committed that at least 40% of its installed power generation capacity will be non-fossil fuel based by 2030. The current number is 30%, if hydro and nuclear power are included. A big share of the commitment will be achieved, if India meets its 175 GW of renewable power capacity target by 2022. The big imponderable here is India’s insistence that it will achieve the targets only if developed countries give it money and discounts on new technology. Source: The Economic Times

BHEL bags two R&M hydropower orders worth ` 4.3 bn

October 3: Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL) has bagged two renovation and modernisation (R&M) orders of hydropower plants worth ` 430 crore, including one from NHPC. BHEL has secured R&M contracts of hydro electric plants (HEPs). The company has won orders worth around ` 430 crore, for the R&M of the 6x60 MW Balimela HEP of Odisha Hydro Power Corp Ltd (OHPC) and the 3x60 MW Bairasiul HEP of National NHPC Ltd, the company said. According to the company, the units at both Balimela and Bairasiul have been in operation for over 35 years and the R&M of these units will result in restoration of output capacity, improvement in efficiency and reduction in auxiliary power consumption, in addition to leading to better plant availability. Major equipment for these contracts will be manufactured and supplied by BHEL's plants in Bhopal, Jhansi and Bengaluru. The normal life expectancy of an HEP is considered to be 30-35 years. BHEL's footprint in hydropower accounts for 23 GW of hydro sets commissioned and 6 GW of hydro sets under execution in India and abroad. Source: Business Standard

800 MW Koldam Hydropower project exceeds target

October 2: The 800 MW Koldam Hydropower project, executed by National Thermal Power Corp (NTPC), has exceeded generation targets during the first six months of FY2016-17 by 129 million units by generating 2,635.76 million units against the design energy of 2,506.77 million units. The target for full year has been fixed at 3,054 million units and keeping in view the performance during first two quarters, the target would be easily achieved, Sanjeev Kishore, Group General Manager of the power station, said. Attributing the record generation to relentless efforts of team Koldam as well as optimum and efficient operations of the machines, he said the hydro power station which commenced commercial operations on July 18, 2015 had already stabilised and has established new benchmarks of generation during the months of July and August 2016 with a Plant Load Factor (PLF) of 107 percent. Source: The Statesman

HIMURJA provides over 37k solar cookers

October 2: Himachal Pradesh Energy Development Authority or HIMURJA has provided over 37,000 solar cookers in the state as part of its renewable energy programme. To provide cleaner energy for households and replace traditional dependence on wood-based heating systems, it has provided 37,339 box-type solar cookers and 755 dish-type pressure cookers. It also installed 192,64,70 litres per day capacity of solar water heating systems on subsidised rates. Under the Solar Thermal Programme, HIMURJA has set up 738 square metre solar steam generating cooking system in several towns of the state while the Solar Photovoltaic Programme has provided 77,533 streetlights, 23,966 domestic lights and 39,246 lanterns to the locals. Source: Business Standard

Govt mulls penalties for curtailing renewable power generation

October 1: Taking serious cognisance of some states curtailing power generation from solar projects, Power, Coal, Renewable Energy and Mines Minister Piyush Goyal said his ministry is looking into how mandatory electricity production from renewable sources can be enforced. Some states including Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan have issued directives to curtail power generation from solar projects. Both the states backed down their commitment towards green power sources, claiming that they have already made provisions for it. Power producers' body Independent Power Producers Association of India (IPPAI) had raised concerns that such decisions were affecting the generators. The government has set an ambitious target of 175 GW of power from renewable energy sources, with 100 GW from solar alone. Source: Business Standard

JMC earmarks land for waste-to-energy plant

October 1: Pink City will soon get rid of its garbage menace as the Jaipur Municipal Corp (JMC) has earmarked 25 hectares land in Langdiwas to set up waste-to-energy plant. The plant, which will have the capacity of nearly 700 million litres per day, will be developed on public private and partnership (PPP) model and Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) is expected to be signed by next month with the firm. The estimated cost of this project will be ` 180 crore. JMC is planning to generate nearly seven MW in a day from 650 tonnes of waste. The state government will also soon appoint the firm for door-to-door garbage collection. The firm will segregate the garbage while collecting it from homes. Source: The Times of India

Govt mulls penalties for curtailing renewable power generation

October 1: Taking serious cognisance of some states curtailing power generation from solar projects, Power, Coal, Renewable Energy and Mines Minister Piyush Goyal said his ministry is looking into how mandatory electricity production from renewable sources can be enforced. Some states including Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan have issued directives to curtail power generation from solar projects. Both the states backed down their commitment towards green power sources, claiming that they have already made provisions for it. The government has set an ambitious target of 175 GW of power from renewable energy sources, with 100 GW from solar alone. Source: Business Standard

Meghalaya seeks Assam cooperation to produce energy from waste

September 30: Power-starved Meghalaya wants to jointly produce energy with Assam from waste and garbage generated by the two neighbouring states. Meghalaya Chief Minister Mukul Sangma said Shillong and Guwahati can come together and aggregate the garbage as the latest technology available is to produce electricity from the garbage. Moreover, he said waste, especially from the organic garbage can be used as fuel to generate power from bio-mass garbage. However, he said that state's garbage alone is not enough to generate power. He said that the total garbage is 150 to 200 metric ton per day of the whole Shillong city and this is not enough for the state to generate power. Source: NDTV

Rajkot takes leap towards becoming a Smart City

September 30: Saurashtra's commercial capital, Rajkot, took an important step towards becoming a 'Smart City' when the Rajkot Municipal Corp (RMC) inked three Memorandum of Understandings (MoUs) with international agencies for implementing various projects for sustainable development by reducing carbon footprint, building climate change resilience and scientific disposal of solid waste. The MoUs were inked between the representatives of Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) and municipal commissioner Banchhanidhi Pani. The Switzerland government had recently selected Rajkot for its low carbon and climate resilient city development projects in India. Source: The Times of India

Punjab gets largest solar power plant in Mansa

September 29: The largest single location solar power plant with a capacity of 31.5 MW was inaugurated in Punjab's Mansa district. The solar power plant, spread over 173 acres and costing over ` 200 crore, is located in Mirpur Kalan village of Mansa district, 250 km from Chandigarh. The plant has been built by Hindustan Power with facilitation from various agencies of Punjab government. Deputy Chief Minister Sukhbir Singh Badal, inaugurating the largest solar power plant, said the area will get power supply from the plant. Badal said that farmers, who have given their land on lease for the project, would get ` 50,000 per acre annually. Source: NDTV

Govt exploring opportunities to set up nuclear power plants in Uttarakhand, Punjab & Haryana: Singh

September 28: The government is exploring possibilities of establishing nuclear power plants in northern states of Uttarakhand, Punjab and Haryana, Jitendra Singh, minister of state in the department of atomic energy, said. The present government can stake claim of having set up an atomic energy plant in Gorakhpur in Haryana, so we have brought atomic energy northwards which it had been waiting for 60-70 years and we made it to cross through Delhi because atomic energy never had the opportunity to see the capital of this country, Singh said. He said that atomic energy remained confined only to Maharashtra, the western coast, Tamil Nadu, parts of Andhra Pradesh. The nuclear power plant being set up in Haryana will become operational by about next year at the cost of just ` 6 per unit. He said that within a period of next ten years India will have at least 25 percent source of energy from nuclear sector. He said that the government was using space technology to safeguard the thorium which will come to be utilised very soon in the years to come when India will have new sets of nuclear reactors. Source: Business Standard

No possibility of setting up nuclear plant in Punjab: SAD

September 28: Ruling SAD ruled out the possibility of setting up a nuclear plant anywhere in Punjab, holding there was no feasibility for it in the state, a day after the Centre said it was looking at possible sites in Uttarakhand, Punjab and Haryana. SAD General Secretary and Member of Parliament Prem Singh Chandumajra said there was no feasibility for setting up a nuclear power plant in the state. He said if the Centre really wants to set up nuclear plants, it should look for sites in Rajashatan or Madhya Pradesh. Source: The Indian Express

Delhi airport first carbon neutral airport in Asia-Pacific

September 28: The GMR consortium-AAI run Delhi Airport has become the first carbon neutral airport in Asia-Pacific following a series of measures taken by it to reduce carbon footprint, including setting up of a 7.84 MW solar power plant. The announcement was made by the international body of aerodrome operators across the world, ACI during the Airport Carbon Accreditation certificate presentation ceremony in Montreal, Canada. The Airport Carbon Accreditation has upgraded Delhi Airport to highest level of certification — a level 3+ neutrality — available to airports across the world. Carbon neutrality occurs when the net carbon emissions over an entire year are zero or when the airport absorbs or offsets the same amount of emission that was generated. This achievement is accredited by ACI under Airport Carbon Accreditation that monitors the efforts of airports to manage and reduce their carbon emissions. The passenger traffic at the Delhi airport spiked 18.1 percent last financial year to 48.42 million as compared to 40.98 million passengers who arrived and departed in FY15. Terminal 3 of Delhi Airport is a LEED Gold certified green building. The energy efficiency measures implemented in Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGIA) has been registered in UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) as clean development mechanism project. Besides, Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL) has set up a 7.84 MW solar power plants to reduce GHG emission. Source: Business Standard

JNPT to harness solar power

September 28: Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) will now harness solar energy and reduce its dependency on conventional electricity from the grid, the government said. Rooftop solar plants allow the use of building roofs for sustainable energy generation, also ensuring financial savings. With this new initiative, JNPT is expected to get a payback on its investment on rooftop solar within 2.5 years due to its high cost of grid electricity (around Rs 14 per unit). Source: The Financial Express

International: Oil 

Iran oil exports hit pre-sanctions high on run-up in condensate shipments

October 3: Iran's total crude oil and condensate sales likely reached around 2.8 million barrels per day in September, nearly matching a 2011 peak in shipments before sanctions were imposed on the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) producer. The run-up from shipments of around 2.5 million barrels per day (bpd) in August comes mainly from condensate, a light oil excluded from OPEC supply quotas that is often produced with natural gas and can be used to make naphtha for petrochemical production. Iran sold 600,000 bpd of condensate for September, including about 100,000 bpd shipped from storage, to meet robust demand in Asia. September crude exports increased slightly from the previous month to about 2.2 million bpd. Iran has said it plans to raise its output to 4 million bpd, although other analysts agreed production has probably peaked for now because investments to pump out more oil are lagging. Source: Reuters

PTTEP to invest at least $1.7 bn in 2017 to maintain output

October 3: PTT Exploration and Production Pcl (PTTEP), Thailand's largest oil and gas explorer, plans to invest at least $1.7 billion in 2017 to maintain its production at the same level as last year. PTTEP, the upstream exploration business of PTT Pcl, aims to produce around 323,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day next year, the same level as last year. Hit by weaker oil prices, PTTEP has focused on cost cutting and expects its cost per unit to fall by more than 10 percent to between $31 to $32 a barrel this year after a decline to $29 to $30 a barrel in the first half. Source: Reuters

Iranian President tells Venezuela essential to raise oil prices

October 3: Iran's President Hassan Rouhani told his Venezuelan counterpart Nicolás Maduro that it was essential for oil producing countries to take a decision to raise the price of oil and stabilize the market. Iran and Venezuela are both members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) which agreed at an informal meeting in Algeria on modest oil output cuts in the first such deal since 2008. How much oil each country will produce is to be decided at the next formal OPEC meeting in November, when an invitation to join cuts could also be extended to non-OPEC countries such as Russia. Rouhani said that OPEC members should also negotiate with non-OPEC members to stabilize the market. Source: Reuters

US crude oil output falls 20k bpd in July to 8.6 mn bpd: EIA

September 30: U.S. crude oil production fell 20,000 barrels per day (bpd) in July to 8.69 million bpd, according to data released from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Production from North Dakota rose 4,000 bpd in July, according to the EIA's monthly 914 report. Meanwhile, Texas production slipped 11,000 bpd and offshore Gulf production rose by 16,000 bpd. Source: Reuters

Saudi Arabia gambles it can raise oil prices without losing too much market share

September 30: The Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) surprised oil traders and analysts by announcing a production deal following a hastily convened extraordinary meeting in Algiers. The Algiers agreement seems to have been designed to engineer an increase in prices by changing market sentiment rather than reducing the physical supply of crude. OPEC issued a statement of just under 700 words following the meeting. The operative parts, which consisted of two paragraphs or 105 words, recorded two decisions: (1) OPEC’s 14 members committed themselves to a collective production target ranging between 32.5 million and 33.0 million barrels per day. (2) A high-level committee will be established to study and recommend the implementation of the production level by individual member countries and consult with non-OPEC oil producing countries. Source: Reuters

Much 2017 oil demand growth to bypass refineries: BP

September 30: U.S. shale gas will displace a growing portion of the world's expanding energy demand, cutting into the need for oil products from refineries, BP said. Natural gas liquids (NGLs) from the U.S. shale boom such as ethane, an alternative to naphtha refined from crude, could feed as much as a third of demand growth in 2017, BP said. BP expects demand growth of 1.2-1.4 million barrels per day (bpd) in 2017, of which 300,000-400,000 bpd could come from NGLs. Source: Reuters

OPEC oil output hits record on Iraq, Libya boost

September 30: The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)'s oil output is likely to reach its highest in recent history in September, a survey found, as Iraq boosted northern exports and Libya reopened some of its main oil terminals. The increase comes despite lower output in top exporter Saudi Arabia and this week's agreement by the OPEC in Algeria to limit supply to support prices, its first such decision since 2008. Supply from OPEC has risen to 33.60 million barrels per day (bpd) in September from a revised 33.53 million bpd in August, according to the survey. Supply in Saudi Arabia has edged down from the record high reached earlier in the summer, the survey said. Supply in Iran, OPEC's fastest source of production growth earlier this year after the lifting of Western sanctions, has held steady this month as output nears the pre-sanctions rate. Iran is seeking investment to boost supply further. Source: Reuters

IOG determining commerciality of Skipper oil discovery

September 30: Independent Oil and Gas (IOG) Plc is determining the commerciality of its first operated appraisal well on the Skipper oil discovery, which lies in Block 9/21a in license P1609 in the Northern North Sea. Although oil is moving in the reservoir, the first sample results indicate that the oil is approximately 11° API and has a significantly higher viscosity than expected, IOG said. These measurements do not align with the company’s observations, which is why the remaining samples will be reviewed and tested by IOG. The next step will then include reservoir modelling to consider potential development options. Determining commerciality may take several months, the company said. Source: Rigzone

Norway oil service strike could escalate at short notice

September 29: A strike involving Norwegian oil service workers could be expanded at any time, but no decision has yet been made on whether to escalate the dispute, trade union Industri Energi said. The negotiations were on behalf of about 6,500 union members at around 30 companies. The strike affects the operations of subcontractors to the oil industry, and could have consequences for oil and gas output in the case of prolonged industrial action, the union and employers have said. The union has so far targeted drilling operations, while the output of oil and gas has been allowed to continue, making it less likely that the government will apply emergency powers to intervene in the strike. The Norwegian Oil and Gas Association (NOG), which negotiated on behalf of employers, has said more than 350 workers face temporary layoffs as a direct result of the halt in drilling operations. Six or seven exploration rigs have been idled by the strike, as well as the drilling of new wells at some production platforms, NOG said. Source: Reuters

Shale drilling revival seen taking hold as oil price recovers

September 29: The biggest reboot of U.S. oil and gas rigs in two years will gain traction as higher prices prompt producers to resume investment in the most profitable plays, according to a report by Platts RigData. Demand for land rigs will rise 29 percent next year to 579, the S&P Global Platts unit said in a report. Platts RigData forecasts average West Texas Intermediate crude prices to climb 23 percent to $52.18 a barrel in 2017. The Henry Hub natural gas benchmark is seen increasing 26 percent to $3.05 per million British thermal units. Source: Bloomberg

Brazil Libra northwest prospect holds 3-4 bn barrels of oil: Total

September 29: French oil company Total SA said the northwest section of the supergiant Libra offshore oil prospect in Brazil holds 3 to 4 billion barrels of oil. The wells, drilled in the region around the Libra pioneer well, also show "excellent" productivity, Total said in the report. The estimate for the northwest region is the first to be made public for Libra since exploration activity began two years ago. The volume would be enough to supply all the oil needs in the United States, the world's largest petroleum consumer, for nearly seven months. The northwest part of Libra is close to the original pioneer well in the Libra and represents only about a quarter of the total Libra area. Source: Reuters

International: GAS

Norway faces mediation to avert strike curbing UK gas supply

October 3: Mediation to avert a wage strike that could shut down three Norwegian onshore oil and gas plants, including Royal Dutch Shell Plc’s Nyhamna facility that processes about 20 percent of the U.K.’s gas supply, will start. The SAFE union and the Norwegian Oil and Gas Association representing employers will have until midnight to reach an agreement on wages for onshore oil workers when the mediation talks start at 10 a.m. that day in Oslo, the union said. Otherwise 338 workers will walk out, shutting Nyhamna as well as Statoil ASA’s liquefied natural gas plant at Melkoeya and Exxon Mobil Corp.’s Slagen refinery, the union said. The U.K. depends on Nyhamna and the gas it processes from the Ormen Lange field in the Norwegian Sea for a fifth of its consumption. A strike could bolster gas prices amid near-record output from Russia and Norway, the biggest suppliers to the European Union. The last time a strike in Norway’s oil and gas industry had an impact on production and exports was in 2012, when the government used its power to resolve a 16-day walkout with compulsory arbitration. Source: Bloomberg

Winter blues beckon for UK gas after best summer in decade

October 3: The best summer for U.K. gas in at least a decade may not be enough to fend off a “boring” winter. Futures for fuel deliverable this winter jumped 29 percent in the six months to their September 30 expiry date amid storage outages and reduced European Union (EU) production, according to broker data. Next-month prices are still near the lowest level for the time of year since 2009, buoyed by supplies from Norway and Russia, expanding liquefied natural gas imports and higher-than-ever EU storage levels. Europe has sought to diversify its gas supply away from Russia, still good for about 30 percent of the total, after flows were cut twice during freezing temperatures since 2006 amid rows with transit nation Ukraine. While the former Soviet nations remain at odds, gas is flowing into Europe from the east at a record level. Supply from Norway this year is also forecast near last year’s record. Europe may get a boost from supplies via sea-going tankers. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports are forecast to rise 16 percent in the fourth quarter compared with the same period last year, or to 12.8 million tons, Energy Aspects Ltd said. A 56 percent year-on-year increase is forecast for the following quarter, with 16.5 million tons of LNG arriving in Europe. Source: Bloomberg

Petronas weighs sale to exit $27 bn Canada LNG project

October 1: Malaysian state oil firm Petroliam Nasional Bhd (Petronas) is considering selling its majority stake in a $27 billion Canadian liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant. Petronas is weighing options for the project as a more than 50 percent slide in crude oil prices since the middle of 2014 has hit the group's profits and prompted cuts to capital expenditure and jobs. Amid the cost-cutting, the economics of the Canadian project - which took three years to get approval due to environment concerns - have been called into question as LNG prices have fallen more than 70 percent in two years. Petronas was given the go-ahead for the C$36 billion ($27.34 billion) project by the Canadian government. The Canadian project is Petronas' biggest foreign investment and seen as a sign of Malaysia's global energy ambitions. An exit would underscore the financial constraints at the state-run firm and also the soft outlook for LNG prices. Source: Reuters

Natural gas shippers reject TransCanada's proposed Mainline tolls

September 30: Shippers on TransCanada Corp's natural gas Mainline system are not signing up to a 42 percent cut on 10-year contracts because they think the toll is still too high for such a long-term commitment. Calgary-based TransCanada is offering tolls as low as 82 Canadian cents per gigajoule on its western Canadian Mainline, a substantial cut from the current shipping price of around C$1.41 a gigajoule to go from Alberta and British Columbia to markets in Ontario. However, the new toll would depend on enough customers signing on to ship at least two petajoules of natural gas. TransCanada's current settlement in place with Mainline shippers expires in 2020 and the company is eager to lock new contracts in place, while Western Canadian natural gas producers need of lower tolls to help compete with U.S. shale producers. While Canada's remote Montney and Duvernay gas plays have comparable production costs to Eastern U.S. shale basins like the Marcellus and Utica, the greater distance to market increases delivery costs and the price of Canadian gas in Ontario. Source: Reuters

Gladstone LNG plant to take unit offline for maintenance

September 30: Australia's Gladstone liquefied natural gas (LNG) export plant will take one of its production lines out of service for planned maintenance for several weeks in October. The Santos-operated plant will take one of its two production facilities, known as trains, off for maintenance from early October to about October 23. Source: Reuters

KKR and Venado O&G announce Eagle Ford partnership

September 29: KKR & Co. LP and closely held Venado Oil & Gas (O&G) LLC announced a partnership to buy producing oil and natural gas assets in the Eagle Ford Shale region of South Texas. Acquisitions will be funded by KKR’s Energy Income and Growth Fund I, Kristi Huller, KKR said. Source: Bloomberg

Gazprom plans to launch third LNG train at Sakhalin-2 in 2021

September 29: Gazprom said it plans to launch a third liquefied natural gas (LNG) production train at the Sakhalin-2 LNG plant in 2021, possibly fed by a newly drilled field, as Russian companies seek to boost their share of the global LNG market. Russia accounts for less than 5 percent of the global LNG market but new plants are being built or considered by Novatek, Gazprom and Rosneft. Located at Prigorodnoye on Sakhalin island, Sakhalin-2, Russia's sole LNG plant, operates two production lines with a combined capacity of 10 million tonnes of LNG per year. The third train should add another 5 million tonnes. Source: Reuters

Lithuania's gas trader signs LNG supply deal with Koch

September 28: Lithuania's state-owned gas trader Lietuvos Duju Tiekimas said it had signed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply deal for 2017 with Koch Supply & Trading, a trading arm for Koch Industries. The deal, which foresees deliveries of 2 million megawatt hours of LNG at undisclosed price, will cover a third of next year's needs of the Lithuanian company. Norway's Statoil and Gazprom were the only two gas suppliers to Lithuania in 2016. Source: Reuters

International: COAL

Vale and Mitsui agree on new terms for Mozambique coal deal

October 4: Brazilian mining group Vale and Japanese industrial group Mitsui have reviewed the terms of their coal deal related to the divestment of part interest in the Moatize coal mine and the Nacala Logistics Corridor (NLC) in Mozambique. Under the new terms, Mitsui agreed to contribute up to US$450 mn, including US$255 mn for a 15% of Vale's stake in the Moatize coal mine and an additional contribution of up to US$195 mn based on meeting certain conditions, including mine performance. Mitsui will also contribute US$348 mn for a 50% stake in the equity and quasi-equity instruments of the NLC and extend a long-term facility of US$165 mn to the NLC. Source: Enerdata

Coal prices hit 30 month high as Newcastle cargoes surge over $80

October 4: Key thermal coal prices have jumped to fresh two-and-a-half year highs as stricter rules in China for transporting the world's most important power generation fuel add to the impact of earlier Chinese caps on coal mining. Coal prices began to soar after China introduced regulations to rein in rampant overcapacity in April, limiting the numbers of days that miners can operate. Prices were given a further boost in late September when China's Transport Ministry introduced stricter land transport rules, pushing up freight costs. The biggest impact has been on Australian coal, the main price benchmark for the Asia/Pacific region, and a core supplier to China. Australian prompt Newcastle cargo prices have shot up 12.8 percent since the end of September to $82 per tonne, their highest level since January 2014. Newcastle cargo prices are up 68.4 percent from their multi-year lows last January. In a move aimed at boosting local supplies, China ordered major mines to raise thermal coal output by another 500,000 tonnes per day. In Europe, coal import prices into Amsterdam, Rotterdam or Antwerp (ARA) are up 12.9 percent since the end of September to $71 per tonne, their highest level since December 2014, and up 69 percent from Q1 2016 lows. Source: Reuters

High coking coal prices could stay: Teck Resources

September 28: Steelmaking coal prices, which have more than doubled this year, could stay high for several quarters as supply from mines that have restarted take time to reach the market, Teck Resources Ltd, the world's second-largest exporter, said. Current spot prices of above $200 a tonne are unsustainable, and the Canadian miner expects prices to settle between $100 and $200 a tonne, Teck said. Hit by a slowdown in China's demand for steel, coal miners globally had been shutting down mines for the past three years as prices for steelmaking coal, also known as coking coal, dropped from more than $300 a tonne in 2011 to below $100 a tonne this year. But in recent weeks, prices have soared on tighter regulations on local production in China. Teck, which has six coal mines in Western Canada, has "a little bit" of additional capacity it could tap through overtime work and working on public holidays. But it has no plans to restart its Quintette mine in British Columbia. Source: Reuters

International: POWER

Egbin plans $630 MW offshore power plant in Tanzania

October 4: Nigeria’s energy company, Egbin Power Plc, is considering a massive offshore power investment, as it is close at constructing a 900 MW power plant in Tanzania. The planned natural gas-fired power plant is estimated to cost about $630 million. Egbin Power Plc said that the construction of the plant is expected to commence shortly as the investment agreement with the host government has been signed. Egbin Power Plc, a subsidiary plant of the Nigerian based Sahara Group, runs a 1,320 MW natural gas-fired independent power plant, which is acclaimed to be the largest plant in Western and Sub-Saharan Africa. Source: Leadership

South Africa picks ports in outline of LNG-fueled power program

October 4: South African coal-export terminal Richards Bay and industrial development zone Coega will be locations for a gas-to-power program to ease the country’s dependence on coal for 70 percent of its electricity. About 2,000 MW of generation from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports will be allocated to Richards Bay and 1,000 MW to Coega, the Department of Energy said. The government will now seek bidders to manage the project, which will be underpinned by a power-purchase agreement between the winning applicant and Eskom Holdings SOC Ltd., the state-owned electricity provider. Source: Bloomberg

AboitizPower to buy power plant stakes for $1.2 bn

October 4: The Philippines' AboitizPower Corp said it will acquire stakes held by funds managed by Blackstone Group LP in a local coal-fired power plant and another power project under construction for about $1.2 billion. The deal, the biggest acquisition in the local power sector since the industry was deregulated and a government monopoly dismantled in 2001, would be financed through internally generated cash and a $650 million loan, AboitizPower said. The acquisition involves a 66.1 percent indirect interest in the 604 MW GNPower Mariveles Coal Plant and a 40 percent stake in the 1,336 MW GNPower Dinginin Project, both in Bataan, north of Manila. The company said the acquisition, which is subject to Philippine regulatory approvals, was in line with its target to increase its attributable net sellable capacity to 4,000 MW by 2020. Source: Reuters

PLN to build 50 MW power plant in Timika

October 3: The national power utility PLN said it would build a 50 MW oil and gas fired power plant (PLMG) in Timika, Papua early next year. PLN and the Mimika district administration had reached an agreement on the plan to build the facility. The Regent of Mimika Eltinus Omaleng already signed the principle license for the location of the project. Until now PLN of Timika still relies on diesel power generating plants to supply power for the district. PLN subscribers in Timika total around 43,000 including in the regencies of Asmat and Nduga. Even the regency of Yahukimo would also be included in the coverage area of PLN of Timika area. . Source: Antara News

Golar Brazil LNG venture to start building power plant in November

September 28: GG Power, a joint venture between Britain's Golar LNG Ltd and Brazil's GenPower Participacoes SA, plans to start construction of its 1,500 MW natural-gas-fired power plant in November, in the Brazilian state of Sergipe. Located near Aracaju, the state capital, the plant is scheduled to open by 2020 under contracts it won from the Brazilian government at auction in 2015. The government hopes the plant will help supplement hydropower during dry seasons and the growing electricity demand of Brazil's power grid. Source: Reuters

South Australia in state-wide power failure as storms hit

September 28: The entire state of South Australia lost electricity after severe winds and storms lashed the region, according to Adelaide-based SA Power Networks. The distributor, which services about 850,000 homes and businesses, said that Australia’s fourth-largest state by area is currently without power and there is “no upstream supply from the transmission network.” Source: Bloomberg


Brazil to boost funding for solar, cut loans for coal, gas

October 4: The Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES), the world’s biggest backer of renewable energy, will focus on clean energy while cutting support for fossil fuels as the country’s economic slump limits its resources. The bank will boost its participation in financing for solar energy, maintain incentives for wind and reduce support for big hydroelectric plants and thermoelectric plants fueled by natural gas, according to the bank. The bank will no longer invest in thermoelectric plants fueled by coal or oil. The new strategy prioritizes renewables as part of Brazil’s effort to fight climate change. The country has set a goal of getting 23 percent of its energy from clean power by 2030, and has to set priorities as it contends with an historical fiscal crisis that’s dried up government resources. BNDES will reduce its participation in big hydropower projects and gas-fired power plants to 50 percent from 70 percent. It will no longer offer low-rate loans to finance transmission lines, though it will provide financing at market rates. The new policies will be in effect for a transmission-line auction later this month a clean-energy auction in December. Source: Bloomberg

Trudeau unveils carbon price as Canada acts on Paris pledge

October 3: Canada will set a minimum price for carbon pollution in a bid to meet its Paris climate agreement targets, setting Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s government up for a legal battle with the country’s energy-producing provinces. A minimum federal price of C$10 ($8) per metric ton will be set in 2018, rising by C$10 each year to C$50 per ton in 2022 when it will be reviewed, Trudeau announced. Canada’s 10 provinces will need to meet that minimum, or exceed it, by using either a carbon tax or achieving a comparable emissions reduction through a cap-and-trade system. Canada’s four most populous provinces already have or are introducing some kind of carbon price, and the federal government had vowed to introduce a national price this fall. All revenue from carbon taxes or cap-and-trade regimes will remain with provincial governments, Trudeau said, and will be revenue-neutral for the federal government. Climate change threatens the entire planet and carbon pricing is an effective way to use markets to reduce emissions and pollution, Trudeau said. Source: Bloomberg

China to build dam on Brahmaputra tributary for $740 mn Lalho hydropower project

October 3: China has begun building a dam on the Xiabuqu river, a tributary of the Brahmaputra, as part of the construction of a major hydropower project in Tibet. In June 2014, the country started constructing the Lalho project, which is regarded as its most expensive hydropower project. The project will cost $740 mn. The project is scheduled to be completed in 2019. The reservoir is designed to store up to 295 million cubic meters of water and offer irrigational facilities to 30,000 hectares of farmland. The project includes construction of two power stations with a combined generation capacity of 42 MW. In its 13th five year plan, China proposed to increase its hydropower capacity, including along rivers that originate in the Tibetan plateau. In October 2014, China began construction of hydropower station over the Yalong River in Tibet, aiming to boost electricity generation in the southwest region. Located in Sichuan's Ganzi Tibetan autonomous prefecture, the 3 GW hydropower station was said to have a total reservoir capacity of 10.8 billion cubic meters. The power station's first generator is scheduled to enter into service at the end of 2021, while the entire station is scheduled be completed in 2023. Source: Energy Business Review

Pakistan RFO-based power generation declining

October 1: Pakistan's reliance on Residual Fuel Oil (RFO) based power generation is declining gradually owing to increasing share of coal, hydel and re-gasified liquefied natural gas (RLNG) based generation. Energy mix is expected to improve with the upcoming China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) power projects, whereby coal, hydel and wind are expected to contribute higher in the energy mix, diluting FO based generation from current 28.34 percent by Fiscal Year (FY) 2019-20 onwards, analysts said. In 2014, country's 40 percent of power generation was dependent on imported RFO which resulted in higher cost of power generation, alarming levels of circular debt and high import bills. The generation mix was dominated by hydel based generation, which accounted for 39.42 percent of energy mix, as compared to 28.345 percent RFO based 24.45 percent and gas based generation respectively. The yearly basis trend in generation mix showed a higher inclination towards gas based generation as compared to RFO based and hydel based generation. Source: Daily Times

China plans dramatic cut in solar feed-in tariffs for 2017

September 30: The National Energy Administration (NEA) of China has proposed significant decreases in solar feed-in tariffs for 2017, for both distributed PV plants and ground-mounted PV plants, ranging between 23% and 52%. Source: Enerdata

GE, Max Bögl to integrate world’s tallest wind turbines with hydro plant in Germany

September 30: GE Renewable Energy has signed an agreement with German company Max Bogl Wind to deliver world’s tallest wind turbine for integration with pumped storage hydro-electric plant in the country. As per the deal, GE will supply 4 units of GE’s new 3.4-137 wind turbines with a tip height of 246.5m for installation at the 16 MW pumped storage hydro-electric power plant. GE said that the integrated Gaildorf project represents a step ahead in balancing power demand and supply fluctuations using renewable energy sources. In addition to providing balancing power for fast-response stabilization of the grid, the combined wind and hydro power plant is expected to maintain a low cost of electricity for German residents. The hydro project is planned to be built under a separate agreement between Max Bögl, Naturspeicher and Voith. GE plans to commission the four wind turbines by the end of 2017 while the full Gaildorf power plant is likely to enter service by the end of 2018. Source: Energy Business Review

Statewide blackout plunges Australia into renewable energy debate

September 29: An unprecedented power outage across South Australia state has stopped production at major miners BHP Billiton and OZ Minerals and left one steelmaker struggling to prevent molten steel from hardening and damaging its factory. The statewide outage sparked political calls for an inquiry into the power sector and questions over the state's reliance on renewable energy. Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull said it was a "wake-up call" to ensure energy security. Australia's renewables have been under political pressure in recent years. The government had planned to cut funding to its renewable energy agency by a A$1.3 billion, in an effort to plug a major budget shortfall, but was forced to reduce the cut to A$500 million in September to gain parliamentary support. Australia wants to double its large-scale renewable energy generation to 33,000 gigawatt hours by 2020, which means solar, wind and hydro-electricity would have to make up nearly a quarter of power generation by then. Source: Reuters

Carbon price impact from Ontario cap-and-trade entry seen limited

September 29: Bargain-basement prices for carbon emissions in the cap-and-trade market shared by California and Quebec are unlikely to get much of a lift from Ontario's pending inclusion in the plan, policymakers for the three jurisdictions said. California posted disappointing results last month from an auction of carbon permits under the plan - permission notes to emit heat-trapping greenhouse gases against a slowing shrinking quota. Critics have said the program suffers from a glut of permits. The province of Ontario, Canada's industrial powerhouse, will run its first auction of carbon permits next March and expects to be fully incorporated in the scheme 12 months from now. Ontario Environment Minister Glen Murray said the province would likely need to run two to four auctions before it could officially join the market. Ontario expects to raise C$478 million ($364 million) from its auctions in fiscal 2016–17, rising to C$1.8 billion to C$1.9 billion a year from 2017-18. But Murray said collecting revenue - which will be directed into other green government plans - was not the main aim of the scheme. Ontario's inclusion will expand the cap-and-trade market by about 30 percent, or 140 million tonnes of emissions in 2017. Quebec will contribute just over 60 million next year, with about 400 million from California. Source: Reuters

Poland said to accelerate national ratification of Paris accord

September 29: Poland may finalize ratification of the Paris climate deal after lawmakers accelerated steps that could help bring the sweeping accord combating climate change into effect by the end of the year. The cabinet of ministers gave the green light for the domestic approval. Speeding ratification may give Poland leverage in negotiations with other European Union (EU) member states at an extraordinary meeting of environment ministers. They are due to discuss fast-track approval of the Paris deal at the EU level, a route that would enable the bloc to join the agreement next week, before many of its 28-member states individually ratify. Poland had said it was ready to endorse the EU solution only after securing its national interests regarding European climate policy. Source: Bloomberg

Areva says awarded $5.6 bn worth of Hinkley Point contracts

September 29: French nuclear group Areva said it has won contracts worth over € 5 billion ($5.61 billion) to provide various services at Britain's $24 billion Hinkley Point nuclear project. The deal to build Britain's first new nuclear power station in decades at Hinkley Point was signed behind closed doors in London earlier in a private ceremony. Areva said the subcontracts include among others, a long-term fuel supply agreement, and the delivery of the two nuclear steam supply systems, from design and supply to commissioning. The company will also provide material for the fuel fabrication, producing uranium and providing conversion and enrichment services at Hinkley Point. It said the activities will start in early 2020. Source: Reuters

Toshiba and partners plan to build world’s largest hydrogen energy system in Japan

September 29: Toshiba, Tohoku Electric Power and Iwatani have partnered to develop the world’s largest hydrogen energy system. The team will initially investigate the configuration and specifications of a hydrogen energy system including all processes from hydrogen storage and liquefaction to transportation and utilization. The hydrogen energy system is being designed to convert renewable electricity into a large volume of hydrogen for long-term storage. It will have maximum capacity equivalent to 10,000 kW. Source: Energy Business Review

Glencore unit to pay record $27 mn for biofuels compliance: US

September 29:  Glencore Plc's bunker fuel unit has agreed to pay a $27 million penalty and retire over $71 million worth of credits for compliance with the United States (US) biofuels program to resolve charges it violated the policy, the U.S. government said. The US Department of Justice and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) alleged that Chemoil Corp exported at least 48.5 million gallons of biodiesel from the US from 2011 to 2013 but failed to retire the associated renewable identification numbers generated for the exported fuel. Chemoil will have to retire some 65 million renewable fuel credits in the settlement, the Justice Department said. It has already retired 7.7 million. The credits are used by oil refiners and gasoline importers to prove they are meeting government mandates for use of ethanol and biodiesel in gasoline and diesel. The removal of millions of the credits, known as Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs), from the market will likely stoke mounting worries over tightening inventories of the credits. Oil refiners and others have said that prices of credits are soaring in response to the U.S. government's plan to boost renewable fuel mandates next year. Source: Reuters


Energy Sector and Cess Collections

Particulars of Cess Collected in Rs Crore
Custom Duty 2015-16
Additional Duty of Customs on Motor Spirit 12
Additional Duty of Customs on High Speed Diesel Oil 1
Special Additional Duty of Customs on Motor Spirit 12
Excise Duties
Additional Duty of Excise on Motor Spirit 18,000
Additional Duty of Excise on High Speed Diesel Oil 55,000
Special Additional Duty of Excise on Motor Spirit 17,500
Other Cesses
Cess on Crude Oil 14,962.19
Clean Energy Cess 12,623.33
Coal and Coke 530
Percentage change in Energy Cess Collections for 2015-16 2014-15 g ADC: Additional Duty of Customs; SADC: Special Additional Duty of Customs ADE: Additional Duty of Excise; SADE: Special Additional Duty of Excise Source: Compiled from Rajya Sabha Unstarred Questions fact_file Publisher: Baljit Kapoor Editorial adviser: Lydia Powell Editor: Akhilesh Sati Content development: Vinod Kumar Tomar  
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