Risks, Resilience, Response: India-EU Cooperation on Russian and Chinese Disinformation

India and the European Union (EU), as two of the largest democratic entities, are particularly exposed to foreign manipulation and interference in the information domain. External developments such as Russian aggression against Ukraine in 2014 and border clashes on the India-China border in 2020 have pushed the EU and India to pay more attention to foreign disinformation efforts and invest more in institutional, legal, and educational resilience to counter these challenges. As a consequence, while the EU regards Russia as a major source of disinformation, India focuses exclusively on Chinese activities.


Patryk Kugiel, Senior Analyst at the Polish Institute of International Affairs
Agnieszka Legucka, Analyst at the Polish Institute of International Affairs
Sitara Srinivas, co-author and former Junior Fellow with ORF’s Strategic Studies Program
Aadil Brar, Journalist and Visiting Scholar at the National Chengchi University, Taiwan
Kalpit A Mankikar, Fellow, Observer Research Foundation


Gautam Chikermane, Vice President, Observer Research Foundation