MonitorsPublished on Sep 06, 2018
Weekly roundups from South Asia.
South Asia Weekly Report | Volume XI; Issue 36


Bhutan: Advancing development agenda through BIMSTEC

Mihir Bhonsale The fourth summit of the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) concluded in the Nepalese capital of Kathmandu on 31 August, with the inking of an 18-point declaration. The declaration underlined the need to address non-traditional security threats within the region, like terrorism and transnational-crimes, and also resolved to achieve multi-modal connectivity and increasing trade and investment. They also signed a MoU on inter-grid connection, underlining the progress made in energy cooperation. Bhutan became a member of the BIMSTEC in 2004. It is the lead-country for cultural cooperation, one of the 13 sectors for cooperation under the BIMSTEC. Similar to other regional and sub-regional inter-governmental forums like the SAARC and the BBIN, the BIMSTEC founded in 1997 offers Bhutan an additional avenue to engage in multilateral cooperation and diversify cooperation with countries in the region.

Developmental goals

Tshering Wangchuck, Chief Advisor of the Interim Government, represented the nation at the fourth summit, held under the theme, ‘Towards a Peaceful Prosperous Sustainable Bay of Bengal Region’. As a country aspiring to shed its Least Developed Country (LDC) within the next decade, Bhutan hopes to reduce poverty. The population in Bhutan that lives below the poverty line has come dowm to 8 percent in 2017 from 12 percent in 2012. The 2018 BIMSTEC declaration says that members are committed to the eradication of poverty in the Bay of Bengal Region by 2030 in line with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The member-nations called for effective implementation of the BIMSTEC Poverty Plan of Action. All efforts undertaken under BIMSTEC would be in sync with the over-arching goal of poverty-alleviation, the declaration read. Speaking at the BRICS-BIMSTEC Outreach Summit in Goa in the year 2016, Prime Minister Tshering Tobgay had said, “It is an anomaly, that while our two groups account for 30 percent of global GDP, we also house approximately half of the world’s poor.” He added, “It is in light of this that the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is crucial for both our groups, as well as for the world at large.” The 2030 UN Agenda for Sustainable Development identified SDGs in 2016 that aim at no poverty, zero hunger, good health and wellbeing, quality education, gender equality, clean water and sanitation, industry, climate action, etc. The country has recorded a high economic vulnerability index (EVI), according to the UN. Though, Bhutan’s EVI improved from 43.04 in 2000 to 40.2 in 2018, higher the EVI, higher is the economic vulnerability of a country. A Gross National Happiness Commission report, the country is faced with a narrow economic base and high dependency on external trade. Bhutan has the highest trade-to-GDP ratio in the region (82 percent). Moreover, Bhutan’s exports concentrated, increasing her exposure to trade shocks since more than 40 per cent of exports are hydropower exports to India. Mineral and metal-based products that constitute the second major exports are highly dependent on the availability of low cost hydropower, which is also subject to considerable hydrological risks.

Electricity trade

Given the high potential of energy resources in the region and renewable and clean energy sources in particular, the signing of the MoU on inter-grid connectivity is a shot in the arm for ensuring uninterrupted and affordable supply of electricity for fueling economic development in the region. Bhutan, Nepal and Myanmar have large sources of renewable energy and establishment of a regional grid would its smaller economies especially Bhutan to benefit from her energy reserves. Bhutan could diversify her hydropower export market to Bangladesh and power deficit areas of Myanmar. Thimphu currently exports 1500 MW of power to India and has enteredinto a trilateral agreement with India and Bangladesh for the $ 2 billion Dorjilung hydropower project that will allow Thimphu to export electricity to Dhaka through India. At present, cross-border transactions in electricity are taking place India and BIMSTEC member nations of Bhutan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Myanmar and Sri Lanka through long-term, medium-term and short-term contracts under bilateral memorandum of understanding or power trade agreements. BIMSTEC member-nations as per the declaration are believed to have instructed relevant agencies in their respective countries to take concrete measures to initiate harmonization of technical, planning and operational standards for removing barriers to grid interconnections and also ensure early establishment of a BIMSTEC Grid and call for an early operationalization of the BIMSTEC Energy Centre in order to strengthen energy cooperation in the region.

Need for coherence

A forum like BIMSTEC is perceived as an alternative to SAARC at least for the time being. But, the activities of the forum in the last two decades suggest it being far from realizing its potential. As rightly noted by Chief Advisor Wangchuck at the summit, “During the last two decades, our collective efforts have led to positive outcomes in political, economic, social and cultural spheres... While all of us agree that we can and must do more, we also recognize that there is a need for more coherence in our actions.” The Advisor to the interim government in Bhutan is not entitled to take any policy decisions, and the decisions and outcome of the summit are subject to endorsement by the post-election government in the country. However, his speech concurs with the collective experience of member-nations within BIMSTEC. The writer is Junior Fellow at Observer Research Foundation, Kolkata.

India: ‘2+2 dialogue’ adds to defence ties with US

Ketan Mehta 2+2 Dialogue, Sushma Swaraj, Nirmala Sitharaman, Mike Pompeo, James Mattis External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj, Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and US Secretary of Defense James Mattis at a joint press conference in New Delhi — 6 September. Photo: Kamal Singh/PTI The first ever ‘2+2 dialogue’ between India and the US is set to be a defining moment in the evolving defence relations between the two countries. US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and Defence Secretary James Mattis will be meeting their Indian counterparts, External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj and Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman on 6 September 2018. The dialogue takes place in the background of the looming threat of US sanctions on India that are likely to be imposed under the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act(CAATSA) owing to New Delhi’s interest in purchasing military hardware from Russia. However, it is likely to help both sides in further expanding cooperation in the military and defence relations. Proceeding from the Cold War era, Indo-US defence cooperation inched ahead in the year 1992 with the first joint training exercise involving para-troopers from the two countries. The two sides deliberated closer military cooperation after the visit of Lt-Gen Claude M. Kickleighter, commander-in-chief, US Pacific Command, to India. Thereafter, the two nations have held various bilateral naval and military exercises, including the Malabar I, II and III. India, in fact, conducts the maximum number of joint military exercises with the US. In 2004, the two sides signed the ‘Next Steps in Strategic Partnerships’ (NSSP) which diversified cooperation in other areas, including that of civil nuclear energy and space. This was followed up by new framework for India-US defence relationship, envisioned by the two countries in the year 2005. After years of negotiation, the two sides signed the Logistics Exchange Memoranda of Agreement (LEMOA) in the year 2016, which allows both countries to access specified military facilities for the purpose of refuelling and logistical support in the form of essential supplies such as spare parts or fuels. LEMOA is just one of the three foundational agreements that US signs with a major defence partner.

Communication & information

It is be expected that the Dialogue will deliberate on two other agreements, including the Communications and Information Security Memorandum of Agreement (CISMOA) and the Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA) during the 2+2 dialogue. While the CISMOA would allow India to share two parties to share encrypted communications on military platforms, the BECA would allow them to share satellite data for military purposes. Moreover, it is likely that 2+2 Dialogue would also see the two sides discussing set other recent developments including India’s interest in stationing a military attache at the US Naval Forces Central Command in Bahrain, New Delhi’s interest in deepening dialogue with the Central Command (CENTCOM) of which’s area of responsibility includes Persian Gulf, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Both sides are also likely to review the Quadrilateral Strategic Dialogue that took place last November in 2017. From US’s viewpoint, India has a pivotal role in upholding a rules based order in the Indo-Pacific realm (until recently referred to as the Asia-Pacific) where it is concerned of China’s growing influence. Lastly, India owing to the requirement of its armed forces, is likely to remain a significant buyer of US military hardware. During 2013-17, India’s imports of US military hardware recorded a growth of 550% compared to the previous years. US arms sales during the last decade stands at an estimated $15 billion. And, while Russia continues to be the largest source of armaments for India, high end US military equipment such the Boing Apache AH-6E attack helicopters, ultra-light howitzers and the F/A 18 Super Hornet will continue to draw India’s interest.

Confronting realities

Having noted the expanding defence relationship between the two countries and their mutual interest in facilitating one, India might have to confront some realities which underpin this defence relationship. These at times might not be congruent with New Delhi’s interests and considerations. Recently, Randall G. Schriver, US Assistant Secretary for Defence for Asian and Pacific Security Affairs at the US Department of Defence, stated that Washington is unlikely to exempt India from the sanctions regime if New Delhi remains committed to the purchase of S-400 missile defence system from Russia. While the US continues to share tumultuous relations with Russia over differences ranging from Moscow’s intervention in its domestic affairs, its Ukraine policy and its role in the Middle East, such differences however do not dissuade India’s interest in Russian defence equipment, including the Kamov Ka-226T attack helicopters. Russia has moreover offered to lease India a nuclear submarine, a deal reportedly worth $2 billion. Other issues also confront India-US relations such as the reluctance of some US companies to transfer propriety technology to India. The Narendra Modi government has encouraged foreign players, ‘military industrial complex’ (MIC). It is being said that some US companies have demanded greater clarity from India on this issue transfer of propriety technology and have also asserted that they should be not liable for defects in the products manufactured. Nevertheless, the India-US 2+2 dialogue gives a chance to both countries in weeding out the aforementioned differences and therefore is a welcome. The September 6, 2+2 dialogue might set the stage for a major breakthrough in the defence relations in the coming years. The writer is a Research Assistant at Observer Research Foundation, New Delhi.

Country Reports


NATO reaffirms support

The Chief executive of the Government of Afghanistan, Abdullah Abdullah, recently met with the Commander of the NATO Joint Force Command, Brunssum General Riccardo Marchio in the Sapidar Palace in Kabul. The latter expressed satisfaction over the developments which the Afghan forces have achieved and reasserted NATO’s commitment to bolster the capabilities of the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces. Discussions were also held on effective ways to fight terrorism in the backdrop of regional and international cooperation.

India’s assistance of cure

The Indian government has provided one million dollars for treatment of Afghan children, suffering from congenital heart disease. It has been providing this fund to the Afghan Red Crescent Society from 2015. This assistance has allowed four hundred and sixty-seven Afghan children to be admitted in hospitals. The aid will go on for two more years and is part of the major role that India plays in the reconstruction of Afghanistan since the fall of the Taliban regime.

Development along Kabul River

A Memorandum of Understanding has been signed between Afghanistan and Germany for the implementation of a project to socially, economically and environmentally develop the areas located along the Kabul River, involving also the Agha Khan Trust. The project, valued at 18-m euros, is expected to be completed by December 2020.

New contracts

The National Procurement Commission approved 17 procurement related cases worth 3.2 billion Afghanis during a recent meeting chaired by President Ashraf Ghani. Six new contracts worth 2.8 billion Afghanis were amongst them. These contracts include consulting services for a 40-km road construction by Kabul Municipality and provision of pipes for water supply to the project going on Wazir Mohammad Akbar Hill amongst others. Certain recommendations have also been made for modifications in some of these contracts.



Prime Minister Hasina Sheikh, along with her counterparts in the Bay of Bengal region, attended the BIMSTEC Summit at Kathmandu. During the Summit Prime Minister emphasized on the need for expanding cooperation in BIMSTEC forum through the creation of a free trade area, investment and energy collaboration. The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (Bimstec) is a regional grouping comprising Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Nepal, Thailand and Myanmar.

Hasina-Modi meet

Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina met her Indian counterpart Narendra Modi at a hotel in Kathmandu on the sidelines of the 4th BIMSTEC Summit. The meeting, though a courtesy one, attained importance because of Bangladesh set to face election later this year. India often considered playing an influential role in Bangladesh’s politics. In the meetings, two leaders reviewed the bilateral relationship. After the meeting, Prime Minister Modi tweeted that two leaders reviewed the full range of India-Bangladesh relations and ways to boost economic as well as cultural relations.


Wangchuck at summit

Chief Justice and Chief Advisor to the Interim Government of Bhutan Dasho Tshering Wangchuk arrived in Kathmandu on 29 August to attend the fourth summit of the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) held on 30 and 31 August.

External debt at $ 2.67 b

The outstanding external debt of the country as of March this year stood at USD 2.67 billion or Ngultrum 187 billion, the Royal Monetary Authority (RMA) figures indicated.Consequently, the debt to GDP ratio is 115 percent, meaning that the debt size of the country exceeds the size of country’s economy by 115 percent, which is down from 121 percent in March 2017.

Consultation with Japan

The 13th annual consultation between Bhutan and Japan on Economic Cooperation was held in New Delhi, India on 28 August. The two sides discussed the achievements of the 11th Plan, integration of the SDGs into the 12th Plan and its objectives, status of Japanese assistance to Bhutan, Bilateral Development Assistance Needs Survey, and other areas of cooperation. The two sides reviewed the ongoing projects and deliberated on the prioritised projects submitted by the government.


‘2+2 dialogue’ this week

The maiden two-plus-two dialogue between India and the United States scheduled in New Delhi next week is an indication of the deepening strategic partnership between the two countries, the Trump administration has said.US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and the Defence Secretary Jim Mattis are set to fly to New Delhi for the talks. They will be meeting their Indian counterparts, External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj and Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman, to discuss enhancing America's engagement with India on critical diplomatic and security priorities, State Department spokesperson Heather Nauert told reporters at her daily news conference

Bilateral talks at Kathmandu

Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Kathmandu attended the fourth BIMSTEC (Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation) Summit where he is pitching for enhanced connectivity and greater "cooperation and coordination" among member states. PM Modi is scheduled to hold bilateral meetings with leaders of Thailand, Myanmar, Bhutan and Nepal on 31st of August. The prime minister has said that the region has become a meeting point for India's Neighbourhood First and Act East policies.

‘Demon’, a scam: Rahul

Demonetisation was not a mistake but a deliberate attack on citizens to help big businesses, Rahul Gandhi said on Thursday, stepping up his offensive against Prime Minister Narendra Modi and the government a day after the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) revealed that most of the banned cash had returned to the system. On 22 August, the RBI said in its annual report that over 99.30 per cent of Rs. 500 and Rs. 1,000 notes banned by PM Modi in the November 2016 demonetisation have returned to the banking system.


‘Sinamale Bridge’ inaugurated

Keeping to the promised date from project-incubation and in time for the 23 September presidential polls in the host-nation, President Abdulla Yameen inaugurated the China-funded ‘Sinamale Bridge’ connecting capital Male with airport-island, Hulumale’, across 1.9-km long of the Indian Ocean, in the presence of diplomats and his ministerial colleagues. While a couple promptly used the bridge as the setting for their wedding ceremony, Wang Xiaotao, Chairman of Chinese Development Corporation (CCC), representing his country, reiterated that Beijing respected Maldives’ independence and sovereignty. However, the MDP-JO decalred that the $ 200-m bridge-project would push the country into a debt-trap and that it was yet another instance of ‘mega corruption’ under Yameen’s care.


Imports to India up

Trade value between India and Myanmar was registered at US$300 million in first three months of six-month interim period prior to next fiscal year 2018-2019, state media reported quoting trade data from the Ministry of Commerce. Import outdid export in bilateral trade with India, with imports worth $194 million and exports valued at $106 million. Myanmar exports mung beans, pigeon peas, green grams, areca nuts, ginger, saffron, turmeric, bay leaves and other fruits and vegetables, fishery and forest products while pharmaceuticals, oil cakes, electronic products, motorbikes, steel and other construction materials are imported.

Govt rejects UN probe

Myanmar on 29 August rejected the findings of a UN investigation alleging genocide by its military against the Rohingya, after the US and other countries joined growing calls for them to face justice. On 27 August the UN probe detailed evidence of genocide and crimes against humanity "perpetrated on a massive scale" against the Rohingya, including acts of rape, sexual violence and mass killings. In a UN Security Council session, a day later, several countries -- including the US, Britain, France and Sweden -- called for Myanmar's military leaders to be held accountable.

Monsoon causes havoc

Monsoon rains caused a central Myanmar dam to overflow on 29 August, inundating about 100 villages and blocking the country's Yangon-Mandalay highway, which serves as an important artery between Myanmar's two biggest cities. No casualties have been reported but thousands were displaced and they took shelter in temporary camps. Swar Chaung dam's spillway structure, which regulates the release of water from the levee, broke due to heavy seasonal rainfall in Bago region and caused severe damage.


BIMSTEC Summit ‘successful’

The fourth Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) has finally concluded on a fruitful note. Hosted by Nepal, an 18-point declaration paper was signed that promise further engagement and economic activities among the partner countries. A Memorandum of Understanding was also established to enhance interface with BIMSTEC Grid Interconnection. Overall, the summit is already looking forward to clear implementation of the discussions and the next summit at Sri Lanka.

Medical liaison with Thais

Symbolic of the growing ties between Thailand and Nepal, Thai Prime Minister Gen. Prayut Chan-o-Cha (Ret.) provided an assistance of USD 1.5 million to Nepal with regard to medicines and medical equipment. The meeting took place between him and Nepal Prime Minister K P Oli on the sidelines of the BIMSTEC Summit and has been wavering towards a new era of bilateral cooperation between the two countries.

Grants for Tarai region

A grand of Rs 5 million each have been received by 21 Tarai districts for the implementation of the Tarai-Madhes Prosperity Programme, an extension of the Border Area Development Programme, which had been formally launched in 2016. Each of the local units will be carrying out and implementing developmental projects, supervised by the Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration.


Interim bail for Zardari

Former Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari has been recently granted an interim bail by a banking court in the fake accounts case against a surety bond of Rs 2 million. The case deals with alleged money laundering of almost Rs 35 billion through fake accounts. Speaking on the affair, Zardari claims that all cases against politicians are politically motivated and further vouched that Pakistan People’s Party candidate, Aitzaz Ahsan will be the next President of the country.

Alvi confident of support

The Tehreek-i-Insaf’s presidential candidate Dr. Arif Alvi claimed to be hopeful of getting more votes than the Electoral College strength of his party and allies in the September election. Presently in Peshawar to canvass for the presidential polls, he is of the opinion that Pakistan’s Tehreek-e-Insaf in Khyber Pakhtunwa would make every effort to improve the people’s socio-economic conditions. He would also work to address non-political issues like water and afforestation which are faced by the common man.

New internet era

After two months of consultation, during the Asia-Pacific Submarine Networks Forum held recently in Shenzen, China, the Pakistani carrier Cybernet has signed a Memorandum of Understanding and a Landing Party Agreement with the PEACE Cable International Network. This is to bring ‘ultra high capacity cable to the country’. It is hoped that this will improve Pakistan’s digital economy by ushering in a new era of affordable Gigabit services and simultaneously reducing the country’s latency to the Western destinations.

Sri Lanka

Court orders CDS’ arrest

On a day when President Maithiripala Sirisena was away in Nepal’s Kathmandu, taking over as Sri Lanka Chair of the regional BIMSTEC outfit, Colombo Fort Magistrate has ordered the arrest of Chief of Defence Staff (CDS), Adm Ravindra Wijegunaratne, after the CID claimed evidence to his allegedly funding navy intelligence officer Hettiarachchi Mudiyanselage Chandana Prasad Hettiarachchi alias ‘Navy Sampath’ to escape the police net, in a case of ‘missing persons’ during the war years. The court also ordered the Bank of Ceylon to release details of transactions of a navy account between March and May last year, when Adm Wijegunaratne, then Navy chief, allegedly gave SLRs 500,000 to jump arrest.



Opinion Pieces

Dominique Moisi, “Standing Up for the UN”, Daily Outlook Afghanistan, 30 August 2018 Najim Rahim and Rod Norland, “Airstrike Near Tajikistan Border Kills Taliban, Afghans Say”, The New York Times, 27 August 2018 Hujjatullah Zia, “Challenges Widen the Gap between State and Nation”, Daily Outlook Afghanistan, 25 August 2018 Fatima Faizi and Rod Norland, “Afghan Security Adviser Quits Amid Reports of Cabinet Shakeup”, The New York Times, 25 August 2018


Daily Outlook Afghanistan, “Challenges before Afghanistan’s anti-Corruption Campaign”, 30 August 2018 Daily Outlook Afghanistan, “Ifs and Buts over Russia’s peace Talks on Afghanistan”, 28 August 2018 Daily Outlook Afghanistan, “Atmar’s Unprecedented Resignation: Main Assumptions”, 28 August 2018 Daily Outlook Afghanistan, “Independence day: Is Afghanistan independent?”, 25 August 2018


Opinion Pieces

Badiul Alam Majumdar, “A 'National Charter' to strengthen democracy”, The Daily Star, 30 August 2018 Tina Jabeen, “Can Dhaka be the next start-up hub of South Asia?”,Dhaka Tribune, 29 August 2018



Kuensel, Convincing the voters, 25 August 2018


Opinion Pieces

AjitRanade, “North-South rhetoric misguided”, The New Indian Express, 27 August 2018. Amrithavarshini Venkatesh, Vineet Bhandari, Varad Pande, “Big data for farmers” , The Indian Express, 31 August, 2018. Carlos M Gutierrez, “2+2=A Different Ball Game”, The Economic Times, 29 August, 2018. Maldives  Opinion Pieces Omkar Khandekar, “Status quo or got to go? What Maldives’ allies want from the election”, Maldives Independent, 29 August 2018 Maldives Independent, “Indians in Maldives anxious and uncertain about future”, 26 August 2018



The Irrawaddy, “Press Freedom Faces Serious Setbacks in Myanmar”, 27 August 2018


Opinion Pieces

Surya Nath Upadhyay, “Corruption runs deep and wide”, Republica, 30 August 2018 Pradhumna B Shah, “High hopes for BIMSTEC Summit”, The Kathmandu Post, 31 August 2018 Sujeev Shakya, “Upholding shamelessness”, The Kathmandu Post, 28 August 2018


The Kathmandu Post, “Act responsibly”, 30 August 2018 The Kathmandu Post, “Stop Intimidating Citizens”, 27 August 2018


Opinion Pieces

Tahir Mehdi, “Ordeal of the polling staff”, Dawn, 31 August 2018 Zubeida Mustafa, “Was Jinnah wrong?”, Dawn, 31 August 2018 Farrukh Khan Pitafi, “The quicksands of Punjab”, The Express Tribune, 30 August 2018 Talat Masood,”Taking charge of foreign policy”, The Express Tribune, 29 August 2018


Dawn, “Media regulation”, 31 August 2018 Pakistan Today, “The road to Naya Pakistan”, 30 August 2018 Pakistan Today, “Fuelling inflation”, 30 August 2018 Dawn, “Tracing missing victims”, 29 August 2018

Sri Lanka

Opinion Pieces

Rajan Philips, “Provincial buffoonery and presidential anxieties”, The Island, 2 September 2018 M S M Ayub, “Tamil leaders bogged down in new controversy: Development vs political solution”, Daily Mirror Online, 31 August 2018 Lasanda Kurukulasuriya, “Japan’s interest in Trincomalee and the ‘great game’ in the Indian Ocean”, Daily Mirror Online, 30 August 2018 Kelum Bandara, “Presidential elections likely in January only if MS, MR join hands”, Daily Mirror Online, 30 August 2018 N Sathiya Moorthy, “Why Sri Lankan refugees are reluctant to return back home?”, Times of India, 29 August 2018 Neville Laduwahetty, “Interpreting the 19th Amendment”, The Island, 29 August 2018 N Sathiya Moorthy, “Too many Rajapaksas, too long too?”, Ceylon Today, 28 August 2018 Ranga Jayasuriya, “Why Chinese influence is good for Sri Lanka, only if leaders know how to make use of it”, Daily Mirror Online, 28 August 2018 P K Balachandran, “Why are US, Japan and India making a beeline for Trincomalee?”, Daily Mirror Online, 28 August 2018 Jehan Perera, “Make use of bid to postpone provincial elections”, The Island, 28 August 2018 N Sathiya Moorthy, “Fixing a ‘value’ on values”, Colombo Gazette, 27 August 2018


Afghanistan & Pakistan: Sohini Bose Bangladesh: Dr Joyeeta Bhattacharjee Bhutan: Mihir Bhonsale India: Ketan Mehta Maldives & Sri Lanka: N Sathiya Moorthy Myanmar: Sreeparna Banerjee Nepal: Sohini Nayak
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