MonitorsPublished on Aug 16, 2018
South Asia weekly report | Vol. XI Issue 33


Nepal: Mass-migration across India border needs greater attention

Sohini Nayak

The relationship between Nepal and India has stood the test of circumstances, time and again, owing to the presence of the open border. With the bilateral treaty of 1950, along with unplugged access to travel and work across brink, mass migration has come to be established as a core entity of negotiation and balance, without any formal record. In this regard, a massive exodus of rural Nepalis, entangled in poverty, unemployment and more recently the civil war, migrating mainly to India, became a recent trend, though with the end of the war a decade or so ago has meant that none of them could be called ‘war refugees’ .

The border area may be depicted as highly volatile with unobstructed population movement, both legal and unauthorised, thereby inflicting non-traditional security threats. In fact, the Nepal-India migration corridor is still not a part of the present foreign employment policies and has been susceptible to the lack of data, inadequacy of social security coverage and also vulnerability of workers in the informal sector. There are both seasonal and long-term migrants to India-primarily the labour force, who are also consequently faced with problems like the transfer of remittances.

Historical framework

The small Himalayan nation has generally been depicted as one of the dependent countries of South Asia, trying to create its own niche in the process of South Asian nation building, despite its tremendous strategic significance as a ‘buffer state’. It is also one of the least developed in the world.

With an average 85 percent of the population living on subsistence agriculture in rural areas, grappling with caste and gender disparities, labour migration has increased tremendously in the last few decades. One of the first instances of Nepal supplying labour to India dates back to the recruitment of the Gorkha Regiment of the British Army after the Anglo-Nepal War of 1814-15.

Indian States like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Assam remain the major hubs of such migration, for both skilled as well the unskilled labour, who try to move out of resource-deficiency in their country. In such a scenario, the contemporary picture presents difficulty in working out the actual number of Nepalis present in India. Several important factors like cross-border marriages, Indians historically rooted in Nepal and Nepalis who have been successful in gaining domiciled status in India, still cannot bring about the proper record for that matter.

In this backdrop, the ever so augmenting of the working-age population of Nepal is supposedly to further increase by 20 million within 2025. In turn, it refers to an additional increment of work-force by that period. In this regard, if there are no alternative livelihood and employment opportunities, given the sluggish economic growth pattern of the country, international labour migration will undoubtedly aggrandize.

The loopholes

Facilitated by unregulated migration, there are several security threats that emanate from this zone and require proper collaboration and managerial skills on part of both the governments to combat such issues. One of the primary aspects includes the non-traditional security threats that have been lately making its presence felt in a more rigorous manner. Ranging from terrorism to human trafficking, drug trafficking and also the spread of infectious diseases, the open border is also a bane that is beyond the generation of economy and employment.

First, the border system is often misused by utilising the neighbour country as a mandatory for the Nepali citizens to depart only from the Nepal airport. This also requires all the necessary documents of identity and migration along with employment in any foreign land. However, regular cases of using India as a transit point to head into a third country are being reported that simultaneously questions the significance and relevance of the open border.

There are private recruitment agencies responsible for such issues which facilitate them from getting away from the legally bound system of migration and taking the responsibility of the people going at work or providing proper insurance facilities. In this recourse, fake passports and documents along with the widespread circulation of unaccounted foreign currency is also making their presence felt in the system, requiring proper scrutiny, thereby encouraging terrorist activities and other antisocial actions.

Second, there is rampant human-trafficking across the border, primarily taking into account young women, girls and children who are sent to India in thousands every year. Many of them end up in Indian brothels, or are seen working as maids in the local neighbourhood, primarily against their wishes. The Human Trafficking and Transportation (Control) Act of 2007 and the Immoral Trafficking Prevention Act 1956, of India, have been comprehensively ineffective in addressing such cases of concern.

Third, the Indo-Nepal border has been diagnosed with the high prevalence of widespread communicative diseases like HIV-AIDS and malaria, caused by the inflow and outflow of migrant-population. The high incidence of HIV-AIDS is attributed to truckers and traders, the returnee migrants from India, and the prevalence rate is put at 2.2 percent. Though surveyed by the World Health Organization (WHO), and the national medical departments of both the countries, legal measures are still pending to work upon.

Way ahead

The situation thus prevailing has to be improved in order to gain better connectivity opportunities between the two countries, who are trying to re-establish and re-negotiate their relationship. Culturally and geographically contiguous, there can be several ways of addressing such loopholes of the open border and labour migration along with diseases and trafficking.

For instance, a comprehensive labour migration process, backed by strong legal aspects between India and Nepal can be established that will in turn protect the rights of the stakeholders. Only a systematic and orderly approach with proper sharing of information along with skill development can be of utility. In this process, the civil society actors can also be involved, helping to generate better response among the masses. This will develop human capital and also encourage betterment of diplomatic and bilateral ties between Nepal and its southern neighbour.

The writer is a Research Assistant at Observer Research Foundation, Kolkata

Myanmar: One year after the beginning of ‘Rohingya crisis’

Sreeparna Banerjee

This month marks the completion of the year since the major exodus of the Rohingyas from Myanmar took place following the bloody attacks by militants on 30 security posts. The plight of hundreds of thousands of Rohingyas, according to the UN, “has become the world’s fastest growing refugee crisis”.

The Rohingyas are ethnic Muslim minority living in Rakhine state. They have been denied citizenship under the 1982 Myanmar nationality law. The 1982 laws effectively deny the Rohingya the possibility of acquiring a nationality. Despite being able to trace Rohingya history to the 8th century, Myanmar law does not recognize the ethnic minority as one of the eight “national indigenous races”.

Since the 1970s, Rohingyas have migrated across the region in significant numbers to avoid communal violence or alleged abuse by the security forces. Moreover, Rakhine state is Myanmar’s least developed state, with a poverty rate of 78 percent, compared to the 37.5 percent national average, according to World Bank estimates. Widespread poverty, poor infrastructure, and a lack of employment opportunities in Rakhine have exacerbated the cleavage between Buddhists and Muslim Rohingya. This tension is deepened by religious differences that have at times erupted into conflict.

Blood-bath and worse

The main reason for the conflict which led to hundreds and thousands fleeing Myanmar was clashes in Rakhine which broke out in August 2017, after a militant group known as the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) claimed responsibility for the attacks on police and army posts. The government responded by declaring ARSA a terrorist organization and the military mounted a brutal campaign that destroyed hundreds of Rohingya villages and forced nearly seven hundred thousand Rohingya to leave Myanmar.

It was a blood-bath where at least 6,700 Rohingya were killed in the first month of attacks. Myanmar’s security forces also allegedly opened fire on fleeing civilians and planted land mines near border crossings used by Rohingya to flee to Bangladesh.

Distress continues

Most Rohingyas have sought refuge in Cox’s Bazar area in Bangladesh which has limited resources and land to host refugees. The largest refugee camp Kutupalong and also Balukhali are getting flooded with people. Their nearby areas are also being occupied by the refugees. Most other refugee sites have also continued to expand as of mid-April 2018, there were 781,000 refugees living in nine camps and settlements. More than 950,000 people are refugees in the country, many unregistered, according to estimates from the UN High Commissioner for Refugees.

Since Rohingyas were stateless in Myanmar, they were restricted from freedom of movement, state education, and civil service jobs. Under this situation they were deprived of all the basic rights including health care services and health information. Different media reports also indicate that there were evidence of sexual violation against Rohingya women. Rohingya women also lack proper knowledge of sexual and reproductive health. The World Health Organization projects the birth of sixty thousand babies in Bangladesh’s crowded camps in 2018. 60,000 were now pregnant.

Lack of access to water and latrines are putting pregnant mothers at risk. The risk of disease outbreak in camps is high, with health organizations warning of possible outbreaks of measles, tetanus, diphtheria, and acute jaundice syndrome. Moreover, more than 60 percent of the available water supply in refugee camps is contaminated, increasing the risk of spread of communicable and water-borne diseases. Highest morbidities rates are severe dehydration secondary to diarrhoeal disease and respiratory tract infections.

The torrential rains in the month of May and June have also cost a number of lives.  So far, more than 9,000 have been affected. Much of the infrastructure of the camps is eroding as the rain falls. Deforestation has left the sandy ground unstable. More than 30,000 camp residents are still living in areas considered to be at high risk of deadly flooding and landslides. Health and sanitation remains one of the greatest concerns. Vulnerable refugees have turned to smugglers, paying for transport out of Bangladesh and Myanmar and risking exploitation, including sexual enslavement.

Steps to be taken

In November 2017, Myanmar and Bangladesh signed a deal for the possible repatriation of hundreds of thousands of refugees, though details remain vague; on the rights that would be granted to the Rohingya, locations for resettlement, etc. The repatriation of Rohingyas, first slated for January 2018, has been delayed.

Interestingly, since the start of 2018, Myanmar authorities have reportedly cleared abandoned Rohingya villages and farmlands to build homes, security bases, and infrastructure. Though the government informed that this development is in preparation for the repatriation of refugees, but rights activists have expressed concern these moves could be intended to accommodate other populations in Rakhine state.

On a positive note, around 70 percent of the one million refugees are now receiving food aids. Almost 100,000 people have been treated for malnutrition. Large scale vaccination programmes have been launched. By mid January 2018, 315000 children less than 15 years had received a five in one vaccination, including cover for diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough. 47,639 temporary emergency latrines have been built by the Bangladeshi military.

Despite such efficient efforts considering the speed and magnitude of the Rohingya crisis, the needs remain staggering and the funds received are far from adequate. The issue of security in the camps needs to be strengthened in order to keep vigilance to check women trafficking and gender-based violence.

An agreement signed in June 2018 between the Myanmar government and UN agencies is expected to pave the way for scores of Rohingya to return home, once their safety and rights are guaranteed. It will also allow the UN refugee agency (UNHCR) and the UN Development Programme (UNDP) to access the Rakhine state.

On 9 August, the Myanmar Government has agreed to the travel of staff of UN agencies who would conduct preliminary assessments in some 23 villages in northern Rakhine in order to activate the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the government, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The areas where the preliminary assessment surveys will be conducted are 12 villages in Buthidaung township and 11 villages in Maungdaw township. Thus, it is high time that these stateless victims are given their rights and are dealt with humanity rather than ruthlessness.

The writer is a Research Assistant at Observer Research Foundation, Kolkata

Country Reports


Directives for better security

Afghanistan President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani issued new directives during the inauguration of the new Radar system at the Hamid Karzai International Airport in Kabul. These directives were issued to ensure better safety and order at the Afghan airport. Accordingly relevant authorities have been notified to prevent unnecessary gatherings, ceremonial gatherings and entry of armed men inside the airport premises. Meanwhile the Independent Civil Aviation Authority of Afghanistan has regained full control of the airspace after twenty six years.

Seventy killed in Paktia

More than 70 insurgents from Pakistan were killed during the latest clashes with the 203rd Thunder Corps of the Afghan Military in the south-eastern Paktia province of Afghanistan. These militants had been responsible for launching coordinated attacks on areas like Sikander Khel, and Khair Mina of the Aryoub Zazai and Ahmed Khel districts. The militants had been armed with heavy weaponry including mortars and heavy machine guns. Also three other militants were killed during a separate clash in Zurmat.


Single biggest FDI

 Global tobacco giant Japan Tobacco Inc acquired Akij Group's tobacco business for $1.47 billion, making it Bangladesh’s biggest ever single foreign direct investment.  Terming Japan Tobacco's investment plan as a good example of FDI Kazi M Aminul Islam, executive chairman of Bangladesh Investment Development Authority, observed that if the Japan Tobacco’s investment is successful, it would add at least $100 million to export receipts.  The present investment is encouraging as the country is looking for FDI Present.

PM’s concern over social media

Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina this week expressed her concern for the spread of false information through social media platform Facebook during the mass students’ agitation for road safety that led the country to a standstill. Prime Minister observed that the fake news in the Facebook had misled the people. Some media reports claimed that Facebook was used to spread propaganda against the government by spreading false news.


Interim Govt takes charge

An interim government was appointed on 9 August in accordance with Article 19 (1) of the Constitution. His Majesty, the King, appointed Chief Justice, Dasho Tshering Wangchuk, as the Chief Advisor of the interim government. The Royal Decree directs the interim government to ensure uninterrupted continuance of the routine functions of the government until the new prime minister enters the office after the new National Assembly has been constituted.

‘Improve coordination’

Improve coordination and cooperation internally as well as within governments for better regional connectivity to take place argues an independent study by Bhutan Media and Communication Institute. The study also showed that regional connectivity initiatives like BBIN and BBIN+M (Myanmar) would have a direct impact on people as the stakeholders involve farmers, truckers, brokers, support service providers along the highways, policy makers, check points (Customs, Immigration, BAFRA), manual workers and clearing agencies among others.

Gang-highway next year

The pending work along the Trashigang-Samdrupjongkhar highway will be completed by next year, according to project DANTAK officials. More than a decade after the widening works beOpposing Sampanthan, is this the timegan along the highway frequent major roadblocks are a common feature along the stretch, especially during summer. Although majority of the work along the 180km highway has been completed, the haul at the 49km stretch that begins from Narphung in Samdrupjongkhar till Kharungla in Trashigang has been a major concern for commuters.


NDA wins RS post

Harivansh Narayan Singh, candidate of the National Developmental Alliance (NDA)on the 9 August was elected as the deputy chairman of Rajya Sabha. Harivansh secured 125 votes, while the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) candidate, BK Hariprasad got 105 votes. Harivansh Prasad is from the Janata Dal United (JD-U), BJP’s alliance partner in Bihar.

No invite from Pakistan

The Ministry of External Affairs stated that it has not received any request from the Pakistani side for Prime Minister Modi to attend the swearing in ceremony of the newly elected Prime-Minister, Imran Khan. Reports had surfaced earlier that Imran Khan would be inviting former Indian cricketers alongside some of the Bollywood stars.

No on ‘Rajiv killers’

In a document filed by the Home ministry, the government stated that it would not be releasing seven of the convicts in the Rajiv Gandhi assassination case, as doing so will set a dangerous precedent.  On 23 January, the Supreme court had asked the Centre to take a decision within three months on a letter sent by Tamil Nadu government in the year 2016 where it conveyed that it had decided to release seven convicts in the Rajiv Gandhi assassination case.


Tycoons back Yameen

Appearing on a two-day talk-show on state-owned MTV, tycoons leading the nation’s nerve-centre resort industry have backed incumbent Abdulla Yameen in presidential polls, fixed for 23 September. Though business leaders have a great influence on the nation’s politics and election, in the first, multi-party democratic presidential elections of 2008, it did not help incumbent, Maumoon Abdul Gayoom.

Retaining & restoring ties

Campaigning for the 23 September presidential polls, Opposition MDP-JO candidate, Ibrahim Mohammad ‘Ibu’ Solih has promised to continue the current ties of his incumbent-contestant Abdulla Yameen, viz, Maldives ties with China and ‘fellow-Islamic’ nation, Saudi Arabia. However, seeking to reverse Yameen’s decision, Ibu has said that an Opposition-led Government under him would restore the nation’s relations with Qatar, Iran and the Commonwealth.


Highest trade month

July saw the highest trade so far this year at the Yangon Stock Exchange or YSX. The value of traded stocks on the YSX last month hit a high of Ks1.23 billion. While this figure is the highest value so far this year, with trading volume of 286,328 shares, the value is lower than the figure for July 2017. It currently has just five listed companies, namely First Myanmar Investment (FMI), Myanmar Thilawa SEZ Holdings (MTSH), Myanmar Citizens Bank (MCB), First Private Bank (FPB) and TMH Telecom Public Co. Ltd.

UN staff for Rakhine

The government has approved the travel of staff of UN agencies who would conduct preliminary assessments in some 23 villages in northern Rakhine in order to activate the Memorandum of Understanding between the government, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs said in a statement on 9 August. It said among the areas where the preliminary assessment surveys will be conducted are 12 villages in Buthidaung township and 11 villages in Maungdaw township.


Rail link with India

The successful completion of the Jankapur – Jayanagar broad-gauge railway took place recently. Symbolic of better connectivity between the two countries, a trial run of 8.5 kilometers was conducted from Jayanagar in India to Khajuri in Nepal. The goods train carried 5, 000 tonnes of ballast from India. This railway route was suspended four years ago, before resuming now again.

No to dual posts

As per the recent declaration of the Nepal Communist Party (NCP), appointed representatives would not get the chance to hold posts of executive ranks in the party. The party secretariat held a meeting in Baluwatar after which the decision came to effect. The speakers of Provincial Assemblies, House of Representatives, Chiefs and Deputy Chiefs of the municipalities and rural municipalities are among the other rank holders, who have been barred from taking dual responsibility. This comes across as an effort to make the system more transparent.

Flexible loans from India

The Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB) has granted permission to the commercial banks to take loans from banking institutions of India. This would primarily concern projects like hydropower, road construction, tunnel, tourism and farming. This broadcast was issued by the Foreign Exchange Department of the government and is an inherent part of the Monetary Policy for the Fiscal Year 2018/19. The loan would also be in Indian currency and would address the problem of ‘credit crunch’.


Ties with Iran to stay

In the wake of re-imposition of sanctions on Iran by US, Pakistan has decided to reserve the right to pursue legitimate economic and commercial relations with Iran. Foreign Office Spokesperson Dr. Muhammad Faisal told the reporters at his weekly news briefings that Pakistan will consider its economic interests first while examining the implications of the US re-imposed sanctions. Pakistan has also shown solidarity with Saudi Arabia over the latter’s diplomatic row with Canada. The Foreign Office Spokesperson Dr. Faisal stressed in a statement that Pakistan will always support the principles of sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of other states.

Boost to military ties with Russia

Pakistan and Russia on 7 August reached a historic agreement which will allow Pakistani soldiers to train in Russia. The talks between the two countries were headed by Pakistani Defence Secretary Zamirul Hassan Shahand visiting Russian Deputy Defense Minister Col Gen Alexander Fomin. The deal was concluded at the end of the inaugural meeting of Russia-Pakistan Joint Military Consultative Committee in Rawalpindi. According to an US based publication Russia is keen to fill up the gap which the United States created after halting security related aid to Pakistan. The deal has attracted praise from various quarters. Baqir Sajjad, an Islamabad based journalist and defense analyst noted that “training in Russian institutes would bring about major shift in the worldview of top Pakistan military officers”.

Prime suspect in torching of schools killed

According to law enforcement agencies, 36 suspected militants have been arrested for their alleged involvement in the burning down of schools in Diamer district of Gilgit Baltistan. The police sources claim that these militants opposed to girls’ education were trained in Afghanistan and the counter-operation which was centred around Darail village in Diamer recovered grenades and suicide jackets. The attack on educational institutions has been condemned by prominent personalities including prime minister-in-waiting Imran Khan.

Sri Lanka

‘Consensus’ likely on PC polls

Major political parties, including Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe’s UNP, SLPP-JO of former President Mahinda Rajpaaksa that swept the nation-wide local government polls in February and the Tamil-majority TNA all favour pending Provincial Council (PC) polls under the existing scheme if the proposed change-over system is to take further time to implement. They seem wanting to establish / re-establish their hold over the electorate in their respective strongholds, hoping to leave President Maithiripala Sirisena-led SLFP to fend for itself in the presidential polls, due before early January 2020.

Costly chairs, not for PC

Acting on JVP member Nipuna Arachchi’s petition, Western Province Governor Hemakumara Nanayakara has stilled the purchase of 104 chairs at a cost of SL Rs 640,000 each, for members in the Council’s new building. In a tame-end to the row even before it had escalated, all that Chief Minister Isura Devapriya could say in defence of the decision was that the price



Opinion Pieces

Rod Nordland and Fahim Abed, “Taliban Launch Assault on Ghazni, a Key Afghan City”, The New York Times, 10 August 2018

Mohammed Gul Sahibbzada, “Afghan Government Should Regulate Religious Teaching Institutions and Places of Worship to Avoid Exploitation (Last Part)”, Daily Outlook Afghanistan, 9 August 2018

Mujib Mashal, “No Shame: Afghan General’s Victory Lap Stuns a Victim of Rape”, The New York Times, 7 August 2018

Mujib Mashal and Farooq Jan Mangal, “U.S. Airstrike Kills Afghan Forces Amid Battle With Taliban”, The New York Times, 7 August 2018

Mujib Mashal and Jawad Sukhanyar, “Suicide Bomber Kills 3 NATO Troops on Day of Violence in Afghanistan “,The New York Times, 5 August 2018


Daily Outlook Afghanistan, “Political Instability in Afghanistan: The Root Cause and Alternatives”, 9 August 2018

Daily Outlook Afghanistan, “Providing Food to All”, 6 August 2018

Daily Outlook Afghanistan, “Afghanistan’s Mining Sector: Fantasy and Reality”, 5 August 2018


Opinion Pieces

Taslima Yasmin, “Assam citizenship row: Will Bangladesh be affected?”,The Daily Star, 10 august 2018

Sultan Mohammed Zakaria, “Where do we stand in democratic governance?”,The Daily Star, 10 August 2019

Jyoti Malhotra, “Fighting her own students, Bangladesh PM Hasina shouldn’t take Modi’s support for granted”, The Print, 7 August 2018


Opinion Pieces

Sonam Tobden Rabgye, “Bhutan and Bangladesh- A Story of two nations connected by a shared destiny”, Kuensel, 4 August 2018


Kuensel, “Go out and vote”, 9 August 2018

Kuensel,Being Responsible”, 7 August 2018


Opinion Pieces

D.K. Singh, ”Today’s lesson for Rahul Gandhi: Anti-BJPism won’t be good enough for 2019”,The Print , 9 August, 2018

James Crabtree,” Does India need more corruption?”, The Hindustan Times, 9 August, 2018

Kailash Narayan Singh Deo, “Dear Prime Minister”, The Indian Express, 10 August, 2018


Opinion Pieces

Aung Zaw, “Spirit of 8888 Continues to Drive The Irrawaddy”, The Irrawaddy, 7 August 2018

Dr. Kyaw Lat, “General Aung San and the Nation’s Development”, The Irrawaddy, 3 August 2018


The Irrawaddy, ”Another Black August”, 8 August 2018


Opinion Pieces

Sangita Thebe Limbu, “Gender, nation, and women’s honour”, The Kathmandu Post, 10 August 2018

Subas Chandra Dahal, “How Nepal can lure Chinese tourists”, Republica, 9 August 2018

Tom Robertson, “Engineering Nepal’s reconstruction”, Republica, 8 August 2018


The Kathmandu Post, “Rivers without bridges”, 6 August 2018

Republica, “Stop politicization of judiciary”, 5 August 2018

The Himalayan Times, “Mountainous scam”, 1 August 2018


Opinion Pieces

Dr Raza Khan, “Unabating violence in Balochistan”, The Express Tribune, 6 August 2018

Kamran Yousuf, “Imran Khan, the Patriot”, The Express Tribune, 6 August 2018

Moeed Yusuf, “Ties with US”, Dawn, 7 August 2018

Dr Parvez Tahir, “Three takes from Elections 2018”, The Express Tribune, 10 August 2018


Dawn,Militancy fears”, 7 August 2018

Dawn, “Kashmir Unrest”, 7 August 2018

Sri Lanka

Opinion PiecesU.S. Airstrike Kills Afghan Forces Amid Battle With TalibanU.S. Airstrike Kills Afghan Forces Amid Battle With Taliban

M S M Ayub, “PC poll muddle”, Daily Mirror Online, 10 August 2018

Kusal Perera, “Doctors prove medical council should be scrapped”, Daily Mirror Online, 10 August 2018

Ravi Nagahawatte, “Opposing Sampanthan, is this the time?”, Daily Mirror Online, 10 August 2018

Dr Dayan Jayatilleka, “Devananda’s dissent and the country that never was”, The Island, 9 August 2018

N Sathiya Moorthy, “To hike, or not to hike?”, Colombo Gazette, 8 August 2018

N Sathiya Moorthy, “Transactional approach to India relations persist, still”,, 8 August 2018

N Sathiya Moorthy, “Greed, gimmick or confidence?”, Ceylon Today, 8 August 2018

Ranga Jayasuriya, “The deadly contrast: “Mahinda vs Gota”, Daily Mirror Online, 7 August 2018

Jehan Perera, “Catering to the demand for a strong leader”, The Island, 7 August 2018

N Sathiya Moorthy, “Constitutional conspiracy or what”, The Island, 7 August 2018

Ahilan Kadirgamar, “Debt trap and mega development”, Daily Mirror Online, 6 August 2018


Afghanistan: Sohini Bose

Bangladesh: Dr Joyeeta Bhattacharjee

Bhutan: Mihir Bhonsale

India: Ketan Mehta

Maldives & Sri Lanka: N Sathiya Moorthy

Myanmar: Sreeparna Banerjee

Nepal: Sohini Nayak

Pakistan: Mayuri Banerjee

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