MonitorsPublished on Jun 25, 2018
South Asia Weekly Report | Vol. XI Issue 26


Myanmar: Kachin, the ‘state of mayhem’

Sreeparna Banerjee As the world focuses and holds the issues regarding the Rohingyas on top of its Myanmar agenda, violence in the Kachin state has escalated. In April and May, more than 5,000 people are estimated to have been displaced, following heavy fighting between the Tatmadaw, the nation’s military, and the rebel Kachin Independence Army (KIA). Across Kachin and northern Shan state, an estimated 1,20,000 people have been displaced by the fighting. The affected areas include Tanai, Hpakant, Momauk, Mogaung, Injangyang and Chipwi townships, as well as the Laiza area. The fighting has subsided in some areas but is reportedly ongoing. There are reports about civilians unable to leave the conflict-affected areas in Tania, Hpakant and Injingyang townships. People fleeing the fighting are now sheltering in local churches, existing displacement sites or are staying with host families, where they have received initial humanitarian assistance from the Government and local organisations.

Internal strife

Kachin state, comprising mostly Christians, have fought for greater autonomy in the predominantly Buddhist nation since 1961. For centuries, Kachins, who number about 1,600,000, lived in relative peace in the northern mountains, near the border with China. After Myanmar gained Independence from the British in 1948, they were promised equality and self- determination. However, conflict broke out after the military seized control in 1962 and the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) was formed to defend Kachin land. The only ceasefire lasted 17 years from 1994 to 2011. The hostilities were resumed and gained momentum in 2011. Thousands of civilians have been killed since, whilst over 120,000 have been displaced. Widespread use of landmines, child soldiers, systematic rape and torture have all been alleged by both sides.  When the National League for Democracy (NLD) under Nobel laureate Aung San Suu Kyi came to power in 2016, it was hoped that she would put a stop to the fighting. But, as with the Rohingya crisis in the south, the situation has only worsened. The KIA has refused to join the Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement, and insists that the current negotiating platform is biased against minority ethnic groups. Instead, they have joined with six other self-identifying “ethnic armed revolutionary organisations,” to create an alternative dialogue structure, called the Federal Political Negotiation and Consultative Committee. The FPNCC is dominated by the powerful United Wa State Army, which is often seen as a Chinese proxy group in Myanmar. Some analysts see the group as a vehicle for China to gain leverage over the country’s peace process.

War on resources?

The army has continually launched air-strikes in the gold mining region inside Kachin state’s Tanai township in recent months.  The aim spelt out to the public is to clear out illegal mining in the area that provides a lucrative source of income for the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO), the political wing of the KIA. But underneath this military operation, there seems to be an inherent agenda of a “resource war” between the Tatmadaw and the KIO in Kachin state. Indeed, control of not only gold and amber but also jade, copper, and ruby mines in the area is important for both. This competition for natural resources can be viewed as an obstacle to implementing lasting peace in the said state, as it precipitates or worsens the socio-economic crisis faced by the rest of the Kachin community. Though the residents of Kachin state have grown accustomed to this cycle of war and violence during the past seven years, the recent turn of events has taken a toll on the nation’s financial condition. Fresh investors have backed off due to the recent clashes in Kachin State. Businessmen from Russia, China and Hong Kong who had expressed interest in investing in construction, mining, livestock breeding, agriculture, electricity and tourism have had second thoughts as the fighting has intensified. Currently, the only hope is based on an MoU signed on 18 May with Yunnan-Hteinchone-Htein Chon-Hein Rong Investment Co Ltd and the Kachin government to build the Myitkyina Economic Development Zone. The company promised to spend K1.6 billion ($1.16 million) on the project. The project will be developed on more than 4500 acres of land in Nankyin village near the state capital of Myitkyina. It will include supermarkets, schools, highway and railway for transportation, hospitals and residences. Also some Chinese companies are investing on banana planting.

Dire situation

It is unfortunate that the latest wave of violence in the world’s longest running civil war shows no signs of abating. While the world’s attention had remained on Rakhine state, scant attention had been given to escalating violence in Kachin, Shan and other conflict-affected areas in Myanmar. It has been disturbing that the military has blocked relief supplies to people displaced by the fighting to teach the KIO a lesson. A food convoy organised by a NGO have been prevented from entering a village at the affected area. It is to be noted that under international law any wilful impediment of relief supplies may amount to war crimes. According to UNICEF, logistical and security concerns mean only a third of the target population in Kachin have access to basic healthcare. More than 100 civilians have been trapped in the village for three weeks with very limited access to food, medicine and other items needed for survival. The UN envoy assigned to address the issues of Rohingyas must also look into the plight of these war-stricken civilians. Rather than being silent spectator it’s high time for the government to intervene and take drastic measures in order to ensure the safety of the civilians. It is important to understand that a stable state is important to ensure the smooth functioning of a nation. A proper investigation into alleged atrocities is the need of the hour.
The writer is a Research Assistant at Observer Research Foundation, Kolkata centre

Nepal: Focusing on energy security

Sohini Nayak The ever-changing regional dynamics of South Asia is a response to the myriad geopolitical and security demands, which have not always been conducive to suit its ambitions in the wider global order of substantial competition. Consequently, there is a perpetual renewal of cooperative constructs and ambitions aimed at widening the pursuit for the entire region to move towards deeper integration and balance. One such vital aspect has been the domain of energy security that forms an integral part of the non-traditional security issues in the region and has often highlighted bilateral relations and negotiations among the states of South Asia. Already associated with the ‘third world’ nomenclature, the economy and social standards of this area require a critical rearrangement. To add to this condition, shortage of power has further led to the low growth equilibrium condition and is one of the critical constraints. If we go back to the roots of exploring the power capabilities we would first witness ‘relatively low per capita electricity consumption’ which has been having direct social implications as well. A major part of the population does not have an avenue to the modern sources of energy, due to affordability. There is inability to access its own resources and a major part of it has to be imported, thereby catering to the increasing demand of energy and the resultant rising prices. Moreover, long hour of load shedding, having direct influence on the social, economic and the commercial activities also has political implications. There is tremendous public pressure on the government to bring about immediate solution to the issue. Only a proper energy exchange through power trading can emerge as a feasible solution to this crisis.

Energy framework

The Himalayan country is one such instance of huge power potential with its primary source lying in the natural facilitation of hydropower. The Nepalese economy has always been dependent on the traditional sources of energy with higher consumption in relation to its Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Biomass and water remain the primary resources available in this country, thus creating a huge hydro power potential but harnessing less than one per cent of it. In this scenario, the government has realised the importance of the energy sector for an inclusive economic development, thereby designing quantitative targets for electricity generation along with promoting the private sector participation. In fact, there is a rich endowment of several other sources of renewable energy prevailing as well like wind, biogas and several other forms of biomass energy. In 2013, 12 percent of the population had access to electricity through these renewable sources. However, further growth is required through micro-hydro schemes and transformation of its energy supply into a more sustainable system. After the K P Sharma Oli government came to power, energy has occupied renewed attention. In this regard, the Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (APEC) has already prepared a subsidy delivery mechanism for renewable energy and is now under consideration by Parliament. The most recent development has been energy negotiations with India and China which has far more political and economic implications than is visible or is highlighted.

The India nexus

Despite the potential, Nepal is increasingly dependent on India to meet the power demand and crisis in electricity supply. It must be mentioned here that the Maoist insurgency until 2006 coalesced with political instability and finally the massive earthquake of 2015 had aggravated this situation of dependence on a particular country. The power exchange agreement of 1971 is a proof as well as a milestone in this case, with several transmission links like the Butwal (Nepal) - Ananda Nagar (India) line or the Dhalkebar (Nepal) - Sitamari (India) line. Moreover, there is still no sufficient cross border transmission infrastructure, which is harming the timely completion of projects. Suggestions for developing the Duhabi-Purnea 400 kV transmission line and the Butwal-Gorakhpur 400 kV line are also yet to be taken up. For hydro-power also, the countries have been signing treaties since a long time, with the Sharda Treaty (1920) being the first one, followed by the Koshi Treaty (1954), the Gandak Treaty (1959) and the Mahakali Treaty (1996) for expanding cooperation in water sharing. After 2014, the visit of Prime Minister Narendra Modi led to the signing of the Power Trade Agreement (PTA), which was a boost for both the countries. However, the problems of grid-synchronisation persist between the two countries which are yet to be resolved, mainly during the monsoon months, when Nepal has sufficiently generated energy through its ‘run-of-the river projects’. Some of these projects include the Pancheshwar Development Project, the Amlekhgunj-Raxaul oil pipeline construction and the upper Karnali project. There was also an extension of the line of credit for Nepal by the Indian government with USD 1 billion in 2014. However, during the 2015 unofficial blockade, the Nepal government’s decision to utilise its domestic resources and not the line of credit to continue with the Budhi-Gandaki Hydroelectric project, led to intense energy inadequacy in the country, which could have been curtailed if the nexus was beyond bilateral ties involving all the four BBIN countries. In the recent past, both the countries have shown greater interest in resolving these bottlenecks and in April, 2018, PM Modi and PM Oli have laid the joint foundation of the 900 MW Arun III hydropower project in Nepal, signalling the warming up of ties.

Sino-Nepal energy front

The closeness between China and Nepal has strengthened cooperation and connectivity through the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) of which energy assumes an important front. As PM Oli was in China on a six-day official visit, one of the most coveted areas of discussion was the energy cooperation between the two countries. Nepal and China also signed an agreement of cooperation between the Nepal Electricity Authority and the State Grid Corporation of China for cross-border power transmission. The interconnection project involves the Rasuwagadi-Galchhi-Ratmate transmission line. In this regard, the West Seti project deserves mention which forms a part of the 2018-19 annual budget of Nepal as well. The 750 MW hydropower project in the far western part of Nepal has been given to the China Three Gorges Corporation since 2012 and further progress on it would be made soon. The Chinese government has also already outlined seven big hydropower projects and 6 transmission line projects that both the countries are in hope of developing together under the BRI. Thus, Nepal is trying to secure its position in the energy sector as one of the prime sources of revenue as well as its renewed status as a landlocked country. With energy as the main component, bilateral ties are also being enhanced as both China and India are the most dominant factors of importance in South Asia vis a vis a small country like Nepal and its survival in the region, especially after the earthquake. There has been tremendous improvement in this sector and also further scope in the country harnessing and utilising its asset in the best possible way.
The writer is a Research Assistant at Observer Research Foundation, Kolkata centre

Country Reports


Discussing peace

A telephone conversation between the Afghanistan President Ashraf Ghani and the US Vice-President Mark Pence reconfirmed the US support to the Afghan resolution of a peace process and a ceasefire with the Taliban. Ghani committed that the government was capable of making important decisions which would endure peace in the country. Pence in full compliance to Ghani’s words welcomed such reforms and further extended support to the upcoming elections in Afghanistan and joint combat against terrorism.

Ceasefire extended on Saudi request

President Ashraf Ghani decided to extend the ceasefire between the government and the Taliban for another ten days, based on the belief that the Taliban would follow suit. The King of Saudi Arabia, Salman bin Abdulaziz, also sought the extension of ceasefire by all parties involved in the conflict in Afghanistan. He hopes that the truce would be renewed for a longer period so that the parties could work together to bring about peace to the Afghan people.

Purge Taliban, Pak told

The Chief Executive of the Unity Government of Afghanistan, Abdullha Abdullha, recently interacted with Pakistani President Mamnoon Hussain during a summit in Tajikistan. He urged the latter to take determined action against their country based Taliban and take concrete steps to establish peace and stability in the region. He added that the Afghan war on terror was being waged without distinction of insurgent groups, as a result of which the Pakistan Taliban head, Mullah Fazullah was killed.

Unfounded claims?

The Afghan Minister of Borders and Tribal Affairs, Gul Agha Sherzai, stated that he has formed a ‘Jirga’ (a gathering of elders) who are in contact with the Talivban chiefs in Quetta council for the past three months. The recent decision of the Taliban to oblige to a ceasefire was due to the efforts of the Jirga. The Taliban meanwhile have refuted Sherzai’s assertions and added that the Taliban leaders would not waste time on any peace talks.


BNP to resume protests

To press early freedom for jailed party leader Begum Khaleda, opposition Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) is contemplating on launching a street protest alongside her fighting the legal battle. Begum Zia has been in jail since February this year after she was convicted in a case of misappropriation of the funds from an orphanage named after her husband, the military dictator General Ziaur Rahman. The BNP, however, feels the cases against her are politically motivated.

Banks rates down

The public and private sectors banks in the country have decided to lower lending rates to single digits. Finance Minister AMA Muhith has directed the public sector banks to keep the lending rates below 10 percent. Finance Minister is hopeful that the move will boost investment. However, the decision received a mixed response from the experts while the economists have welcomed the move but there were apprehensions about its implementations.


Connectivity better: PM

The Government of the ruling People’s Democratic Party (PDP) during has improved road connectivity in the country, said Prime Minister and party President, Tshering Tobgay. The widening of the East-West Highway, blacktopping of 180 gewog centre roads, expediting the Gyalpoizhing-Nganglam highway were some of the achievements in road connectivity under the PDP government in the country.

For better crops

The country joined the ‘Seeds Without Borders’ protocol allowing it to import improved variety seeds without much hassle from six countries in the region. The other signatories to the agreement initiated by International Rice Institute are Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka. The protocol covers a number of rice-based crops such as maize, wheat, vegetables and pulses with a possibility to include more.

Water shortage

The Public Accounts Committee (PAC) has pulled up the Thimphu Thromde on shortage of drinking water. The Thromde had implemented just one out of the 15 recommendations given by the Royal Audit Authority (RAA) through its performance audit on drinking water. The RAA had blamed the shortage of water supply on unequal distribution.


BJP quits J&K Govt

In an unexpected move, BJP broke its alliance with the PDP in Jammu and Kashmir, on 19thJune, saying it had become increasingly difficult to continue in the government. Attributing the causes to continued violence and terrorism in the state, the BJP has told its leaders to be ready for elections later this year, most probably in November. President Ram Nath Kovind has since cleared the proposal for the imposition of Governor’s rule in the State, going by the spirit of Article 370 of the Constitution.

UNHRC report ‘fallacious’

The Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) lost no time in denying an UNHRC report, claiming human rights violations in Jammu and Kashmir. In an unprecedented report of the kind involving the nation, UN Human Rights Commissioner, Prince Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein, called for an independent and international enquiry into rights violations in the border State. The MEA in its sharp rebuttal said the UN report was ‘prejudiced, fallacious, tendentious and motivated’.


JO heading for split?

The three-day conference of the Jumhooree Party (JP) of self-exiled billionaire-founder Gasim Ibrahim has indicated its intention to field a separate candidate for the 23 September presidential polls, charging the main Opposition MDP with unilateral initiatives and decisions without reference to partners in their ‘Joint Opposition’ (JO) group. Media reports however, citing insiders, claimed that it was only a ‘JP pressure tactic’ to bring around the MDP to follow the rules of the coalition, but did not rule out the possibility, if push came to the shove.

India cuts quota

Based on three-year average consumption, India has reduced the quota for import of staple products to Maldives for 2018-19, compared to the previous fiscal. Departing from the existing arrangement of supplying as per Maldivian Government’s demand, the new method has nothing to do with the current strains in bilateral relations, Indian officials have said. While the reduction in many daily food products is sharp, there had been reports about some importers, using the concessional facility to re-route Indian imports to third countries, possibly with official connivance at the Maldivian end.


UN envoy meets Suu Kyi

Christine Schraner Burgener, the new UN envoy for Myanmar, held talks with Myanmar's de facto leader Aung San Suu Kyi and army commander-in-chief Gen Min Aung Hlaing, during a nine-day visit to Myanmar that ended on 21 June.  She emphasised that credible measures were needed to establish accountability for the violence that engulfed Rakhine state and drove 700,000 Rohingya from their homes.

No death penalty for rapists

Myanmar's House of Representatives (Lower House) has voted down a motion on the death penalty for rape of minors. Noting that Myanmar is a member country of the United Nations and had pledged to uphold human rights and basic freedom, lawmaker Daw Myint Myint Soe said in a debate in the House on 18 June that Myanmar had also unconditionally accepted the fact that no crime should have the death penalty as agreed by many member countries of the UN and furthermore there is no evidence to show that the death penalty deters or reduces crime.

For more investments

Myanmar has reformed its Investment Commission with 13 members, with Minister at the Office of the Government U Thaung Tun as chairman. Minister of Commerce Than Myint has been named the vice-chairman of the commission, while Director-General of Investment and Company Administration (DICA) U Aung Naing Oo is secretary. Myanmar will also enforce a new Companies Law starting 1 August, aiming at attracting more foreign investment.


Reaffirming China ties

Prime Minister K P Sharma Oli’s visit to China is being seen as bearing the desirable fruits of connectivity, trade and investment. As an integral part of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), 14 key agreements including a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) has in the field of Chinese electric cargo railway network to Kathmandu, have been signed. Along with this both Oli and his Chinese counterpart Li Kequiang have also reflected back on the several implementations of the past agreements and have also gone ahead to sign the agreement of cooperation between the Nepal Electricity Authority and the State Grid Corporation of China for a study on the 400 KV Rasuwagadi- Galchhi-Ratmate transmission line. Overall the meeting was successful in its own right.

Tourism growth up

One of the most important sectors of Nepal that had faced a setback after the devastating earthquake of 2015 was the tourism industry. However, in comparison to 2017, the year 2018 has been better in terms of tourist inflow. There has been an increment of 9.6 per cent. As recorded by the Ministry of Immigration, a total of 68,825 international tourists have visited the country in the recent past. This primarily includes a major portion from India and China along with 2.2 per cent of positive growth from the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) countries.

‘Post-quake’ trauma still

Sindhupalchowk, one of the worst affected areas of the Nepal earthquake, has still not been able to recuperate in the truest sense. With the completion of only 28 per cent of housing facilities, around 20,000 people will have to spend their fourth monsoon under the ‘makeshift tents’. Despite 27,000 victims receiving the third tranche of grants, a large population still remains homeless.


US ‘not successful’

The US in a congressional hearing  has reminded Pakistan that it’s still on notice to eliminate all terrorist sanctuaries from its territory, although relations between the two countries has shown some signs of improvement. The reminder was  conveyed by US Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asian Affairs Alice G. Wells while reviewing Trump administration’s South Asia policy. However, in her testimony before the House Foreign Affairs Committee on “US policy toward Afghanistan”, Ms Wells acknowledged that the policy of coercing Pakistan into accepting the US demands had not been very successful.

Moody’s downgrades

The Moody’s investor Services ratings have downgraded Pakistan’s ratings from stable to negative. The decision to change the outlook is influenced by risks from Pakistan’s external vulnerabilities and low foreign currency reserve, added the agency. The development comes as a blow to Pakistan as economic managers are having hard time in taming the bulging import bills which are eating away at the country’s foreign exchange reserves. Although the Moody’s acknowledged Pakistan’s robust growth potential but emphasized that fragile external payments position and weak government debt affordability balance these strengths.

Sri Lanka

‘Hitler’ comparison

By asking controversial former Defence Secretary Gotabhaya Rajapaksa to contest the 2020 presidential polls and bring in a ‘Hitler-like’ discipline-centred dictatorship to Sri Lanka, the chief priest of the Asgiriya chapter, Vendaruwe Upali, seems to have pricked a hole in the former’s perceived ambitions in this regard. The ‘blessings’, if it is anything, comes in the footsteps of denied news reports that outgoing US Ambassador, Atul Keshap, had told Gota’s brother and former President Mahinda Rajapaksa that his country would not permit such a possibility.

Rupee hits record low

The International Monetary Fund urged Sri Lanka to let its rupee keep sliding and not intervene further to bolster the ailing currency as it fell to historic lows. The currency bottomed out at roughly SLR 160 to the US dollar on Wednesday — its weakest ever point — despite efforts by the central bank to stop its steady decline in recent weeks. The bank spent $190 million in May alone to ease pressure on the exchange rate, sounding alarm bells at the IMF.



Opinion Pieces

Mohammad Zahir Akbari, “Only the Dead Will See the End of the War in Afghanistan”, Daily Outlook Afghanistan, 21 June 2018 Mujib Mashal, “Taliban Kill Dozens of Afghan Soldiers, as Cease-Fires Give Way to Violence”, The New York Times, 20 June 2018 Liu Jinsong, “Qingdao Summit Promotes China-Afghanistan Relationships” Daily Outlook Afghanistan, 19 June 2018 Najim Rahim and Mujib Mashal, “As Afghan Cease-Fire Ends, Temporary Friends Hug, Then Return to War”, The New York Times, 17 June 2018 Zabihullah Ghazi and Mujib Mashal, “Deadly Blast Punctures Afghanistan’s Brief Moment of Peace”, The New York Times, 16 June 2018 Mujib Mashal,”A Grass-Roots Afghan Peace Movement Grows, Step by Step”, The New York Times, 15 June 2018


Daily Outlook Afghanistan, “Pak-Afghan Cumulative Interaction”, 21 June 2018 Afghanistan Times, “Daesh brutality”, 21 June 2018 Daily Outlook Afghanistan, “The Rights of Refugees Must be Protected”, 20 June 2018 Daily Outlook Afghanistan, “Extending the Ceasefire with the Taliban: Trying effortlessly to change Illusion to Reality”, 18 June 2018 Afghanistan Times, “Digest peaceful Afghanistan”, 18 June 2018


Opinion Pieces

Shahedul Anam Khan, “To win election, seek only people's endorsement”, The Daily Star, 21 June 2018 Atiur Rahman, “Bangladesh shows the way for financial inclusion”,, 21 June 2018


Opinion Pieces

Sonam Yangdon, “A Higher Calling Called RIGSS”, The Bhutanese, 16 June 2018


Kuensel, “The water crisis”, 21 June 2018 The Bhutanese, “Insidious social media”, 16 June 2018


Opinion Pieces

Khalid Shah, “Why Amit Shah’s checkmate to the PDP could prove disastrous”,, 20 June 2018 Jyoti Malhotra, “As ties nosedive, India voted against Maldives at the UN Security Council “, The Print, 15 June 2018 Amb. Satish Chandra, “Report of OHCHR on Human Rights in Kashmir Reeks of Bias”, Vivekananda International Foundation, 17 June 2018


Opinion Pieces

Basheerhamad Shadrach, “Upgrading Myanmar’s internet access”, The Myanmar Times, 21 June 2018 David Brown, “Why did Viet police arrest US student?”, The Myanmar Times, 21 June 2018 Bo kyi, “The Need for Mental Health Care in Myanmar”, The Irrawaddy, 20 June 2018


Opinion Pieces

Maina Dhital, “Diversity in workplace”, The Kathmandu Post, 22 June 2018 Udaya Shumsher Rana, “Missed opportunities”, The Kathmandu Post, 22 June 2018 Aashish Chalise, “The fourth element”, Republica, 21 June 2018


Republica, “Coherent strategy”, 21 June 2018 The Kathmandu Post, “Disaster preparedness”, 21 June 2018 The Himalayan Times, “Empower local govts”, 21 June 2018


Opinion Pieces

Pervez Hoodbhoy, Cyber intimidation: a bad idea Dawn, 23 June 2018 Hasaan Khawar, “CPEC: beyond infrastructure”, The Express Tribune, 20 June 2018 Dr. Niaz Murtaza, “Defiant States”, Dawn, 19 June 2018


Dawn, Moody’s downgrade”, 22 June 2018 Dawn, Hindutva militancy”, 20 June 2018 The Express Tribune, China takes the initiative”, 19 June 2018

Sri Lanka

Opinion Pieces

Rajan Philips, “Triple jeopardy”, The Island, 24 June 2018 N Sathiya Moorthy, “Putting the ‘Tamil house’ in order”, The Sunday Leader, 24 June 2018 M S M Ayub, “What is in store for the Group of 16?”, Daily Mirror Online, 22 June 2018 Kusal Perera, “Is anyone serious about reconciliation?”, Daily Mirror Online, 22 June 2018 Dr Dayan Jayatilleka, “Be a Hitler: The dark matrix that can destroy Sri Lanka”, The Island, 22 June 2018 N Sathiya Moorthy, “Drawing a comparison: President Sirisena and Dr Mahathir”, Ceylon Today, 20 June 2018 Ranga Jayasuriya, “Gota’s knotty bid”, Daily Mirror Online, 20 June 2018 Jehan Perera, “National unity government needs to govern with more consensus”, The Island, 19 June 2018 N Sathiya Moorthy, “Perpetually yours, or what?”, The Island, 17 June 2018


Afghanistan: Sohini Bose Bangladesh: Dr Joyeeta Bhattacharjee Bhutan: Mihir Bhonsale India: Ketan Mehta Maldives & Sri Lanka: N Sathiya Moorthy Myanmar: Sreeparna Banerjee Nepal: Sohini Nayak Pakistan: Mayuri Banerjee
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