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Impact Investments in India: Towards Sustainable Development
Jun 24, 2020

Impact Investments in India: Towards Sustainable Development

Conventional investments cater to investors who intend to gain financial returns. Other investors whose aim is to generate a positive social or environmental impact at a decent rate of return, turn to “impact investments” for their purpose. Mobilised to finance social enterprises, impact investments assume three primary forms: embedded, integrated, and external. This paper discusses the ideas of impact investment and social enterprises, and o

Improving access to Agricultural credit: New perspectives
Jan 08, 2020

Improving access to Agricultural credit: New perspectives

India’s agrarian crisis has deepened in the past several years, contributing to the slowdown of the economy. Amongst the most crucial factors affecting the country’s agricultural sector is financial inclusion. Over the years, India has attempted various measures to narrow the gap in financial inclusion for its farmers, yet the goal continues to elude the country. This paper presents a discussion of these measures, outlining the current state

India and China in Central Asia: Understanding the new rivalry in the heart of Eurasia
Feb 17, 2020

India and China in Central Asia: Understanding the new rivalry in the heart of Eurasia

After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, India established official ties with the five former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; so did China. In recent years, both India and China have come up with different strategies to strengthen their respective ties with these resource-rich economies, collectively called the Central Asian Republics (CARs). China’s strategy is the ambitious Belt and Roa

India and Counterforce: A Question of Evidence
May 14, 2020

India and Counterforce: A Question of Evidence

Even as India has had a long-running debate about many aspects of its nuclear doctrine, most importantly, its No First Use (NFU) policy, the country continues to maintain the NFU. This paper makes a critical assessment of recent arguments made by Christopher Clary and Vipin Narang that India may be reconsidering its NFU policy because of counterforce “temptations”. The paper dissects the evidence they present—statements made by mostly retir

India and global trade governance: Redefining its ‘national’ interest
Dec 24, 2017

India and global trade governance: Redefining its ‘national’ interest

This paper considers and explains the shifts and consistencies in India’s engagement with structures of global trade governance beginning from the Uruguay round of trade negotiations in late 1980s. It makes three major arguments. First, that although India has participated actively in global trade negotiations since the establishment of the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) it was only under the present-day trade governance institut

India and Japan: Changing Dimensions of Partnership in the post-Cold War Period
Mar 06, 2010

India and Japan: Changing Dimensions of Partnership in the post-Cold War Period

Indo-Japanese relations have witnessed a paradigm shift since 2000 when both countries launched a global partnership in order to address a range of issues affecting regional and global peace and prosperity. Systematic efforts made by the leaders of both countries since then have strengthened their partnership. Until very recently, their interactions were mainly limited to economic issues, but today they cover a wide spectrum of subjects including

India as a partner in triangular development cooperation: Prospects for the India-UK partnership for global development
Aug 10, 2023

India as a partner in triangular development cooperation: Prospects for the India-UK partnership for global development

riangular cooperation is a growing trend in India’s global engagement. The term refers to development cooperation in which traditional aid donors work together with Southern partners to address challenges in developing countries. Largely absent from this type of cooperation in the past, India has gradually become a more visible partner. The current government’s endorsement of triangular cooperation in joint statements with key partners, as we

India-Africa partnership for food security: Beyond strategic concerns
Apr 24, 2020

India-Africa partnership for food security: Beyond strategic concerns

India and Africa’s complementary sectoral priorities and similar roles in the evolving global food markets present numerous opportunities for collaboration in the agricultural sector. This paper analyses the potential for India-Africa cooperation towards food security and capacity building. It makes an assessment of Indian partnership with African countries in the areas of agriculture and food security, outlines current initiatives in both regi

India-Japan-Australia minilateral: The promise and perils of balancing locally
May 24, 2017

India-Japan-Australia minilateral: The promise and perils of balancing locally

This paper argues that even when the India-Japan-Australia minilateral is inspired by a need to ensure their interests against the current global power transition, it remains limited in its aim: to restrain China from achieving regional hegemony as it may threaten the liberal security order in the region. In the face of China’s rise and the US’ retrenchment, Asia’s regional powers are hedging their bets on a regional security order that is

Indian investments in Africa: Scale, trends, and policy recommendations
May 24, 2017

Indian investments in Africa: Scale, trends, and policy recommendations

Indian investments in Africa, from both public and private sector entities, have increased considerably in the last decade. Yet despite the growing importance of Indian investments in Africa, only a few empirical studies have been carried out on the subject. This paper undertakes a disaggregated analysis of Indian foreign direct investment outflows to Africa from 2008 to 2016, and presents three main findings. First, it confirms earlier analyses

India’s evolving views on responsibility to protect (R2P) and humanitarian interventions: The significance of legitimacy
Dec 24, 2017

India’s evolving views on responsibility to protect (R2P) and humanitarian interventions: The significance of legitimacy

The role of legitimacy in India’s approach to the doctrine of the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ (R2P) and Humanitarian Interventions (HIs) has not received as much attention as it is due. The following paper evaluates India’s evolving views on R2P and HIs through the prism of legitimacy. It also demonstrates why the outcome of an HI, whether through the medium of the R2P or otherwise, matters as much as motives. Most Indian debates about R2

India’s FTAs with East and SE Asia: Impact of India-Malaysia CECA on the Edible Oil Value Chain
Oct 06, 2015

India’s FTAs with East and SE Asia: Impact of India-Malaysia CECA on the Edible Oil Value Chain

is paper formulates an analytical framework to assess the impacts of India's Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) on commodity value chains. Existing academic literature have relied on examining Balance of Payments (BoP) to assess the impact of FTAs. is paper views such methodology as reductionist, and instead oers alternative lenses of the impacts on the commodity value chain. is paper brings into fold the concerns for the wellbeing of various stakehold

India’s Participation in the NSG: Capturing the Debate
Apr 27, 2015

India’s Participation in the NSG: Capturing the Debate

The paper examines how the Nuclear Suppliers Group has evolved over the years and the role the Group defines for itself. It also attempts to provide a more nuanced understanding of the consequences of India's NSG-membership.

India’s pursuit of United Nations Security Council reforms
Dec 24, 2017

India’s pursuit of United Nations Security Council reforms

The United Nations Security Council has emerged as the key arena and barometer for evaluating the promise and progress of accommodating new, rising powers in the international system. The case of India provides one of the best examples of a rising power coming to terms with its increased power, role and expectations of itself and of other powers, great and small, in negotiating its place in the reformed Council as a permanent member. This paper b

India’s Shifting Governance Structure:From Charter of Promises to Service Guarantee
Jul 25, 2012

India’s Shifting Governance Structure:From Charter of Promises to Service Guarantee

Once synonymous with inefficiency and slothfulness, India's public service delivery system is finally being overhauled and put on the path of reforms. Ironically, these reforms are being spearheaded by a set of state governments. This paper attempts to capture the key trends of this impressive development which has far reaching consequences for democracy and governance in the country.

India’s Small Satellite Mission: Time for the Next Leap Forward
Apr 04, 2015

India’s Small Satellite Mission: Time for the Next Leap Forward

The paper analyses small satellite activities within India in various institutions and identifies the opportunities as well as the gaps.

India’s ‘Look Far East’: The Vladivostok moment in Indo-Russian relations
May 26, 2020

India’s ‘Look Far East’: The Vladivostok moment in Indo-Russian relations

This paper explains Russian co-option of India into the Eastern Economic Forum (EEF) at a high level of participation in September 2019 and the range of agreements involved. It argues that the co-option was the result of Russian President Vladimir Putin’s dissatisfaction with the economic outcomes so far for the Russian Far East of “northeast Asian regional cooperation.” Moscow related this behaviour to skewed priorities of East Asia’s �

Invest, Indebt, Incapacitate: Is China Replicating Its ‘Xinjiang Model’ In BRI Countries?
Aug 21, 2020

Invest, Indebt, Incapacitate: Is China Replicating Its ‘Xinjiang Model’ In BRI Countries?

China has been aggressively promoting its Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) through massive investments in participating countries, as a means to further its strategic, economic and political goals. Such a strategy bears striking similarities to its policies in the Xinjiang province. This paper attempts a comparative study between Xinjiang and BRI countries in South and Central Asia to highlight the issues these states will likely face in the coming

Iraq Policy of the United States: Dimensions of Failure
Jan 25, 2007

Iraq Policy of the United States: Dimensions of Failure

The invasion and occupation of Iraq in March-April 2003 by a 'Coalition of the Willing' led by the United States was the second part of the response to the outrage conducted by a non-state actor on September 11, 2001. This was perceived in Washington as a gift from history, an opportunity to reshape a region of crucial relevance to the politics and economics of the western world. The impulse for drastic action was greater because notwithstanding

IS Khorasan, the US–Taliban Deal, and the Future of South Asian Security
Dec 15, 2020

IS Khorasan, the US–Taliban Deal, and the Future of South Asian Security

The Taliban today undoubtedly has a stronger hold over how the US militarily plans to withdraw from the conflict in Afghanistan. This raises questions about the continuing challenges to security in South Asia—in particular, the influence of IS Khorasan (IS-K), the group’s Afghanistan avatar, and its rise both as an ISIS-aligned entity and a big-tent brand for various jihadist groups in the country. As the ‘Khorasan’ project of ISIS gets m

Japan’s Security Policy in the Asia-Pacific during the post-Cold War Period
Oct 09, 2010

Japan’s Security Policy in the Asia-Pacific during the post-Cold War Period

Despite domestic political changes, the alliance with the US continues to be the cornerstone of Japan's security policy in the Asia-Pacific region. Although Japan has taken some siginificant steps in the direction of normal statehood, the domestic constituency in favour of full strategic autonomy is still very weak. Japan's dilemma between its growing security concerns and the limitations laid by its Constitution will continue to be a major chall

Kashmir After Article 370: India’s Diplomatic Challenge
Jul 16, 2020

Kashmir After Article 370: India’s Diplomatic Challenge

The abrogation of Article 370 and the bifurcation of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in August 2019 provoked intense diplomatic response from the international community. For the most part, India received widespread support for its decision. At the same time, however, there have been criticisms of the restrictions imposed in the region on communication and civil liberties. China and Pakistan, in particular, reacted with hostility and attempted to

Learning from the old, preparing for the new: Designing an institutional architecture for India’s development partnerships
Mar 24, 2017

Learning from the old, preparing for the new: Designing an institutional architecture for India’s development partnerships

India’s increasing economic and political clout has prompted a spurt in the volume and complexity of its overseas development assistance. Looking ahead, the largest incremental capital for global development and infrastructure beyond what exists today will also come from India as the value of its economy grows from $2 trillion to roughly $7 trillion by 2030. However, the DPA – India’s development cooperation agency – is yet to assume an a

Mainstreaming sustainability outcomes in big infrastructure projects
May 13, 2020

Mainstreaming sustainability outcomes in big infrastructure projects

Urban infrastructure projects using brownfield or greenfield development can cause damage to natural habitats. To achieve the Agenda 2030 goal of “leaving no one behind” while mitigating the destruction of habitats, an integrated approach towards infrastructure development must be adopted. This paper outlines the current paradigms of sustainable infrastructure provision, highlighting how and why sustainability outcomes are overlooked at diffe

Making BITs Less Biting: India’s Reform of the Investment Regime
Nov 26, 2016

Making BITs Less Biting: India’s Reform of the Investment Regime

In response to increasing criticism of the existing international investment regime, various countries, including India, have been revising their model investment treaties. is paper analyses India's recently approved Model Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT). It makes an assessment of the text's practical implications from the perspective of ongoing negotiations of investment agreements with several countries, as well as India's transition towards

Maritime Security and Development in the South-West Indian Ocean Region: Harnessing India’s Engagement with Small Island Developing States
Jul 21, 2023

Maritime Security and Development in the South-West Indian Ocean Region: Harnessing India’s Engagement with Small Island Developing States

In recent years, the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO) region have emerged as vital security and developmental partners in the geopolitics of the Indian Ocean Region (IOR)—thereby gaining prominence in India’s foreign policy priorities. This paper examines India’s bilateral and multilateral engagement with the SIDS of the SWIO region, and argues that India should consider the concerns of the

Migration, river management, radicalisation: What does the future hold for India-Bangladesh relations?
May 12, 2020

Migration, river management, radicalisation: What does the future hold for India-Bangladesh relations?

India and Bangladesh’s relationship has been growing steadily over the past few years, especially since Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina came to power in January 2009. In 2019, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi described the relationship as being in its “golden era (Sonali Adhyay).” Indeed, Bangladesh is at the centre of India’s flagship ‘Neighbourhood First’ and ‘Act East’ policies, and has been crucial in ensuring peace

Modi and Buddhism: Between Cultural and Faith-Based Diplomacy
Nov 30, 2015

Modi and Buddhism: Between Cultural and Faith-Based Diplomacy

India has always been shy of adding a religious tint to its foreign policy. In the last decade, however, the aspiring global power began engaging in what has come to be called 'Buddhist diplomacy' in its outreach to countries in the South, East and Southeast Asia. 􀀫e prime minister is diligently pursuing India's 'Buddhist agenda' and taking it beyond its borders, emphasising the Indian and Hindu links with Buddhism. Concurrently, another Asian

Modi in Mauritius: Renewing a Special Relationship
Mar 10, 2015

Modi in Mauritius: Renewing a Special Relationship

On the eve of Prime Minister Narendra Modi's visit, M. Ganapathi, former High Commissioner of India to Mauritius, analyses India-Mauritius ties and suggests areas of cooperation to further strengthen the relationship.

Money matters: Discussing the economics of the INSTC
Apr 24, 2017

Money matters: Discussing the economics of the INSTC

India, Iran and Russia have decided to begin using the part-ready International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC), a multimodal network of sea, rail and road routes between India, Iran, Central Asia and Russia. As the broader politics in the region undergo new configurations that may put to question the project’s prospects, and the evolving security situation demands continuous appraisal, it is time to refocus discussion on the economics o

Nepal: Finding a way forward
Jan 25, 2016

Nepal: Finding a way forward

Nepal is no stranger to Constitution drafting, having gone through six such rounds since 1948, with the seventh culminating in September 2015. is recent exercise, however, was unique as it was conducted, for the rst time, without the oversight of the monarchy. Certain populations of Nepali society had specic stakes in a new Constitution. For many of Nepal's marginalised communities such as the Madhes is, for example, the new Constitution oe

New Space for the Future of Work: Co-working in India
Jun 19, 2020

New Space for the Future of Work: Co-working in India

The nature of work is changing, leading to the loss of some jobs and the creation of others that require radically changed skills. In India, as the requirements of this evolving labour market change, co-working spaces fulfil many of the new needs. The aim of this paper is twofold: to describe the development of the co-working industry in India, its driving factors, as well as the architecture, design and social aspects of the work environment; a

Not promoting, not exporting: India’s democracy assistance
Dec 24, 2017

Not promoting, not exporting: India’s democracy assistance

India is commonly — and rightly — considered as a reluctant democracy promoter. But while sceptical about the motives behind Western attempts to promote democracy and about the effects of their democracy promotion efforts, India has since the mid-2000s moved warily to involve itself in “democracy assistance”. This article argues that New Delhi has engaged in these activities in the context of a wider shift in strategy, in parallel with t

Nuclear Developments in Iran: Comprehending the Indian View
Apr 21, 2015

Nuclear Developments in Iran: Comprehending the Indian View

This paper examines Indian policies and decisions on Iran's nuclear programme and reveals a number of critical factors which have influenced New Delhi on this matter in varying degrees.

Paradiplomacy in India: Evolution and operationalisation
Aug 24, 2017

Paradiplomacy in India: Evolution and operationalisation

Paradiplomacy as it is conducted by sub-state governments introduces the idea of decentralisation of political power to make regional governments prominent actors in the international sphere. This paper examines the scope for subnational diplomacy in India, as the country seeks to appreciate the significance of federalism and regionalism in promoting local interests, as well as identity, in current international politics. Regional governments ope

PLA joint exercises in Tibet: Implications for India
Feb 26, 2020

PLA joint exercises in Tibet: Implications for India

Since 2015, China has been undertaking a thorough restructuring of its military, under the leadership of President Xi Jinping. This has involved significant changes in the operational structure of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), with the modernisation and optimisation of the military to bring about better jointness and overall efficiency. This paper examines the PLA reforms as they pertain to training and jointness in the Tibet Autonomous R

Policymaking Towards Green Mobility in India
Oct 12, 2020

Policymaking Towards Green Mobility in India

Government agencies at the city, state and central level are paying greater attention to sustainable transport as the way forward for India’s mobility sector. However, for sustainability measures to have lasting outcomes in policy and practice, institutional reforms are urgently needed. The National Urban Transport Policy, which governs India’s urban mobility policymaking, was amended in 2014 to create city-specific, low-carbon mobility solut

Promoting a ‘GDP of the Poor’: The imperative of integrating ecosystems valuation in development policy
Mar 17, 2020

Promoting a ‘GDP of the Poor’: The imperative of integrating ecosystems valuation in development policy

This paper argues in favour of integrating valuation of ecosystem services in development policy planning in India. The paper presents three cases where monetary values of ecosystem services have been estimated to illustrate the significance of the exercise: the Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) in Uttarakhand, the Kunigal Wetlands in Karnataka, and the Indian Sundarbans Delta (ISD) in West Bengal. The first two cases highlight the ecosystem-livelihoods