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BIMSTEC and climate change: Setting a common agenda
Oct 18, 2017

BIMSTEC and climate change: Setting a common agenda

The BIMSTEC region is among the most vulnerable in the world from increased threat due to climate change. In the foreseeable future, climate change is projected to affect each BIMSTEC member country with greater severity and frequency, thereby impeding their response capacity significantly. This brief explores the vulnerability of the region from climate change and the BIMSTEC-level initiatives that have taken place to address the issue. Although

Building the resilience of India’s internal security apparatus
Nov 26, 2018

Building the resilience of India’s internal security apparatus

26 November 2018 marked a decade since 10 Pakistan-based terrorists killed over 160 people in India’s financial capital of Mumbai. The city remained under siege for days, and security forces disjointedly struggled to improvise a response. The Mumbai tragedy was not the last terrorist attack India faced; there would be many others since. After every attack, the government makes lukewarm attempts to fit episodic responses into coherent frameworks

Burmese Ethnic Nationalities Council
Nov 26, 2007

Burmese Ethnic Nationalities Council

A four-member Chiang Mai-based delegation from the Burmese Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC) visited ORF on 26 November, 2007. The delegation consisted of Dr. Lian H. Sakhong (General Secretary); Harn Yawnghwe (Director - National Reconciliation Programme); Saw David Taw (Joint General-Secretary); and Dr. Sui-Khar (Team Leader - Foreign Affairs Committee).

Can India edify Myanmar to keep the peace?
Jan 04, 2018

Can India edify Myanmar to keep the peace?

Engaging the Myanmar Army in exercises such as those with India provides an opportunity for Myanmar Army officers to learn from the experiences of other armed forces in international military operations.

Changing Sino-Indian perceptions
Nov 18, 2003

Changing Sino-Indian perceptions

Last fortnight's India-China joint naval exercise, however limited, may be a new opening in bilateral relations. Coupled with the politico-economic CBMs of the past years, the Shanghai naval exercise is an indication that both nations are learning to overcome the bitter past.

China-Nepal military relations: Risks and opportunities for India
Apr 20, 2024

China-Nepal military relations: Risks and opportunities for India

The recent visits by Chinese military delegations to Nepal suggest a deepening of China's engagement in the region, which could have implications for

China’s Military Modernisation: Recent Trends
Apr 11, 2023

China’s Military Modernisation: Recent Trends

China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has undergone many changes since Xi Jinping became general secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in 2013. Efforts at modernising the PLA have been conducted in earnest for the past 10 years through the overhaul of the organisation and the introduction of latest technologies to make it battle-ready. This paper describes these capability-related and institutional changes in China’s military, wh

Chinese claim over South China Sea has as much to do with economics as history
Dec 08, 2012

Chinese claim over South China Sea has as much to do with economics as history

An Indian maritime expert feels China, which had increased its defence budget several-fold in order to retain or recover its territories in the disputed area, is also cleverly diffusing the situation by having joint military exercises with countries around the area to prevent them from banding together against its claims.

Civil-military fusion for Atmanirbhar Bharat
Dec 31, 2023

Civil-military fusion for Atmanirbhar Bharat

Given India’s history and ethos, India must forge its own unique structures to achieve jointness and integration and civil-military fusion in the br

Common responses to maritime security threats in the Bay of Bengal
Nov 14, 2017

Common responses to maritime security threats in the Bay of Bengal

The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) appears to be gaining momentum in formulating collective strategies to combat non-traditional security threats in the subregion. This brief describes how BIMSTEC had focused on bilateralism or trilateralism from its inception in 1997 until 2015, thereby failing to pursue a more comprehensive and long-term approach to addressing the common threats to their

Cyber Mercenaries: The Failures of Current Responses and the Imperative of International Collaboration
Dec 11, 2023

Cyber Mercenaries: The Failures of Current Responses and the Imperative of International Collaboration

Digital adoption, hastened globally by the COVID-19 epidemic, brought along with it both benefits and threats, including concerns of safety and security of the cyberspace. Current geopolitical dynamics, ongoing strategic and economic disputes, as well as attempts by authoritarian regimes to preserve power have allowed companies with malicious intent—known as ‘cyber mercenaries’—to develop and deploy offensive cyber capabilities. The tools

Deconstructing the Economic Crisis: Imbalances still worrisome
Nov 23, 2010

Deconstructing the Economic Crisis: Imbalances still worrisome

Experts from India and Germany, including academics, practitioners and policymakers, took part in a day-long seminar titled "Deconstructing the Economic Crisis" organised jointly by Observer Research Foundation (ORF) and the Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung (RLS), Berlin.

Drawing lines in the water
Jul 14, 2014

Drawing lines in the water

There are unlimited possibilities for strengthening maritime cooperation with Bangladesh and Myanmar - ranging from joint scientific research to environmental monitoring and from major trans-border projects to trilateral naval exercises. If Delhi decides to play for small stakes in the Bay of Bengal, it will deal itself out of the emerging great game in the east.

Engaging with a Resurgent Africa
Nov 27, 2008

Engaging with a Resurgent Africa

An international conference on "Engaging with a resurgent Africa" was organised in New Delhi on 20th and 21st of November. It was organised jointly by Observer Research Foundation and Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung of Germany.

Enhancing Aerospace Power Engagement Among the Quad Countries: A Roadmap
May 13, 2024

Enhancing Aerospace Power Engagement Among the Quad Countries: A Roadmap

The Indo-Pacific region is becoming the world's new strategic and economic ‘centre of gravity’. Indeed, the accelerated trajectory of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) in recent years highlights the region’s growing importance. The Quad countries have committed to a rules-based order and a free and open Indo-Pacific, and are aiming to develop resilience across domains, such as in the maritime space, to counter and deter aggressive

Farce and Facts for Obama
Aug 30, 2010

Farce and Facts for Obama

When I heard that President Barak Obama would address a joint session of Parliament during his November visit, a chill ran down my spine. Images of President Bill Clinton's foray into the Central Hall of Parliament during his visit in March 2000,

Financing for Agenda 2030: Deepening India-EU Development Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific
Feb 12, 2024

Financing for Agenda 2030: Deepening India-EU Development Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific

As the world confronts multiple challenges which are intricately connected, our path for development stands at a crucial juncture. In the context of the embroiling polycrisis, progress on the sustainable development goals (SDGs) has been steady but fragile with major and persistent challenges. Financing for Agenda 2030 has emerged as a major bottleneck with several developing economies, especially the least developed countries (LDCs), low-income

Financing Regenerative Agricultural Practices: A Recommendation for BRICS
Sep 17, 2021

Financing Regenerative Agricultural Practices: A Recommendation for BRICS

The BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) have all declared their commitment to climate action and the implementation of the Agenda 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. This brief makes a case for BRICS, as a forum, to build a strategy for financing regenerative agriculture; key should be the creation of a joint fund. If implemented correctly, the brief argues, such a strategy of giving back to the land, instead of merel

Fixing Cyber Vulnerabilities: An Agenda for the Quad
Feb 16, 2024

Fixing Cyber Vulnerabilities: An Agenda for the Quad

The COVID-19 pandemic sparked rapid digitalisation worldwide, with work-from-home interactions, online payments, and online consultations for various services becoming acceptable practices. While this shift in the manner and nature of work brought enormous benefits, crucially in terms of access, it has also increased the kind of cyber security threats that countries face, with vulnerabilities felt particularly in the health and financial sectors.

France and India: Partners for a green future
Mar 01, 2024

France and India: Partners for a green future

Joint efforts within the ISA, progress in nuclear energy, and advancements in green hydrogen highlight India and France's mutual commitment to promoti

France in Mali -Tragedy with much comic relief
Feb 11, 2013

France in Mali -Tragedy with much comic relief

After sending out confusing signal for months, France may have chosen the worst possible moment for intervention. Because its procrastinations allowed a whole range of potential opponents to mingle and be jointly prepared just in case the French did intervene.

Gas pricing to be determined by Govt: Petroleum Secy.
Sep 30, 2008

Gas pricing to be determined by Govt: Petroleum Secy.

Various issues and problems impacting the availability and accessibility of natural gas, the fuel of the future, came up for detailed discussions at the recent two-day 7th Petro India 2008, organised jointly by Observer Research Foundation and Indian Energy Forum in Delhi.

Geo-strategic uncertainties will drive India and Japan to maintain balance of power in Asia
Jun 29, 2012

Geo-strategic uncertainties will drive India and Japan to maintain balance of power in Asia

The geo-strategic uncertainties that prevail in Asia will drive India and Japan increasingly in the direction of jointly addressing the need for maintaining the prevailing balance of power in the continent, according to scholars from India and Japan.

Growing Chinese concerns over Japan-India Air Combat Exercise
Feb 14, 2023

Growing Chinese concerns over Japan-India Air Combat Exercise

For China, the Veer Guardian 2023 exercise comes as an ominous portent for the future

iCET: तंत्रज्ञान-केंद्रित भविष्यासाठी भारत-यूएस भागीदारी
Sep 10, 2023

iCET: तंत्रज्ञान-केंद्रित भविष्यासाठी भारत-यूएस भागीदारी

आम्ही इंडो-पॅसिफिकमध्ये तंत्रज्ञानाची घोडदौड पाहत असताना, iCET चे उद्दिष्ट दोन्ही देशांना गंभीर आणि उदयोन्मुख तंत्रज्ञानामध्ये भागीदारी वाढविण्यात मदत करणे आहे.

Importance of Indo-Russian Military-Technical Cooperation and Future Prospects
Dec 03, 2007

Importance of Indo-Russian Military-Technical Cooperation and Future Prospects

This report is the text of a presentation made at a seminar on ’Military-technical Cooperation between Russia and India: Status and Perspectives for Cooperation’, organised jointly by Observer Research Foundation and Unity for Russia Foundation, on October 5-7, 2007 in Moscow.

In the Shadow of COVID19: Reimagining BIMSTEC’s Health Futures
May 24, 2023

In the Shadow of COVID19: Reimagining BIMSTEC’s Health Futures

BIMSTEC member states have issued, on occasion, joint statements recognising the importance of holistic public healthcare and the need for alliances. Yet, intra-BIMSTEC collaborations so far have been limited, mostly focused on traditional medicine. Amidst COVID-19, the region’s states have an opportunity to take their health-sector partnerships to a “new normal”.  Given the highly endemic nature of communicable diseases and the porous bor

India & Japan take recent shifts in their stride
Mar 23, 2022

India & Japan take recent shifts in their stride

Talks of a major rift were also put to rest by the joint statement, which largely hewed to India's stated position

India as a partner in triangular development cooperation: Prospects for the India-UK partnership for global development
Aug 10, 2023

India as a partner in triangular development cooperation: Prospects for the India-UK partnership for global development

riangular cooperation is a growing trend in India’s global engagement. The term refers to development cooperation in which traditional aid donors work together with Southern partners to address challenges in developing countries. Largely absent from this type of cooperation in the past, India has gradually become a more visible partner. The current government’s endorsement of triangular cooperation in joint statements with key partners, as we

India in Central and Eastern Europe: From Non-Alignment to Multi–Alignment
Sep 13, 2021

India in Central and Eastern Europe: From Non-Alignment to Multi–Alignment

India and the Central and Eastern European countries can work together towards a rules-based international order

India needs enhanced Look East Policy
Feb 10, 2014

India needs enhanced Look East Policy

Mr. Sanjay Bhattacharya, Joint Secretary (South), Ministry of External Affairs, says "the need of the hour is an enhanced Look East Policy that is more in time with the current global setting".

India not in the game of catching up with China: Senior Govt official
Nov 21, 2013

India not in the game of catching up with China: Senior Govt official

Taking part in an interaction on Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's recent visit to China, Mr. Gautam Bambawale, Joint Secretary (East Asia), Ministry of External Affairs, emphasised that India was not in a game of "catching up" with China vis-a-vis its relationship with other East Asian countries.

India, Malaysia kick off military exercise
May 05, 2018

India, Malaysia kick off military exercise

The military exercise, titled “Harimau Shakti,” is being held in Malaysia from 30 April to 13 May. The joint combat exercise is meant to create greater synergy and interoperability between the two armed forces.

India-China Relations: Still Bogged Down
May 03, 2023

India-China Relations: Still Bogged Down

After the April 27 meeting between the Indian and Chinese defense ministers, the two sides failed to issue a joint statement — a telling clue as to how the meeting went.

India-Japan ‘Dharma Guardian’ Exercise
Mar 27, 2024

India-Japan ‘Dharma Guardian’ Exercise

Military engagements between India and Japan have been on a steady growth path that mirrors the shared political and strategic goals of Delhi and Tokyo.

India-Myanmar naval diplomacy
Mar 12, 2013

India-Myanmar naval diplomacy

In an important advance in the bilateral security cooperation between Delhi and Yangon, two naval vessels from Myanmar have arrived in Vishakhapatnam for joint exercises. While India's naval diplomacy with Myanmar is headed in the right direction, Delhi needs to step up the pace of cooperation.

India-Russia Defence Cooperation: A Time-tested Relationship
Feb 07, 2006

India-Russia Defence Cooperation: A Time-tested Relationship

During Prime Minister Manmohan Singh¿s early-December 2005 visit to Moscow, India and Russia signed landmark agreements to further cement their defence cooperation that dates back to almost half a century. These include an agreement on the defence of intellectual property rights that prevents either side from using technologies received from the other without special permission, joint construction of a multi-purpose transport plane

India-Russia relations: Seeking to overcome the ‘oil fever’
Mar 11, 2024

India-Russia relations: Seeking to overcome the ‘oil fever’

India-Russia relations need a paradigm shift in the relationship from a “seller-buyer” format to a more strategic foundation

India-US Relationship in a New Tech-Order
Feb 14, 2023

India-US Relationship in a New Tech-Order

iCET will be led by the US National Science Foundation and Department of Science and Technology of India. Among its goals is an ambition to foster a partnership, joining six of India's technology innovation hubs to support at least 25 joint research projects with the US in areas such as AI and data science, and apply its gains to agriculture, health and climate, etc.

India: Challenges before Budget session
Feb 22, 2013

India: Challenges before Budget session

The three-month-long budget session of the Indian Parliament, which began with the constitutionally mandatory address of President Pranab Mukherjee to a joint sitting of the two Houses on February 21, is both crucial and critical.

India’s ‘Look Far East’: The Vladivostok moment in Indo-Russian relations
May 26, 2020

India’s ‘Look Far East’: The Vladivostok moment in Indo-Russian relations

This paper explains Russian co-option of India into the Eastern Economic Forum (EEF) at a high level of participation in September 2019 and the range of agreements involved. It argues that the co-option was the result of Russian President Vladimir Putin’s dissatisfaction with the economic outcomes so far for the Russian Far East of “northeast Asian regional cooperation.” Moscow related this behaviour to skewed priorities of East Asia’s �

Indo-Israeli relations set to improve
Jun 20, 2014

Indo-Israeli relations set to improve

It is likely that Indo-Israel ties will expand in the political, economic and strategic realms. Israel's Ambassador to India, Alon Ushpiz, stressed that the bilateral relationship has surpassed a "buyer-seller relationship," and Israel's long experience of working jointly with Narendra Modi has yielded tangible results.

Indus: Connecting the drops
Jun 26, 2012

Indus: Connecting the drops

Given the dependence of Indus River on glacial melt, extensive joint studies on the complex and unique Himalayan systems must be conducted and data must be shared openly, suggested an international conference in Kathmandu organised by ORF, Stimson Center, USA, and Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Pakistan.

Iran nuclear agreement: Unclear and extremely vague
Apr 04, 2015

Iran nuclear agreement: Unclear and extremely vague

Iran and the major powers have reached a very preliminary and extremely vague agreement on principles for an agreement, released in the form of a brief joint statement of less than 500 words. Whether this 'agreement about an agreement' would lead to an actual deal is anybody's guess, but it's not going to be easy.

Iran Nuclear Deal: A significant step
Apr 04, 2015

Iran Nuclear Deal: A significant step

Though Iran and P5+1 negotiators have only agreed upon the parameters for the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) and the "implementation details" are yet to be worked out, this nevertheless is a significant step.

Japan-Australia strengthening their security cooperation
Dec 05, 2022

Japan-Australia strengthening their security cooperation

The recently revised joint declaration between Japan and Australia seeks to further boost their relations

Macron’s visit to India takes place at an important juncture in regional geopolitics
Mar 12, 2018

Macron’s visit to India takes place at an important juncture in regional geopolitics

France has begun to pay serious attention to the Indo-Pacific region after a long time.

Making Mithi, A River Again
May 20, 2011

Making Mithi, A River Again

An ORF study report on the neglect of the Mumbai river Mithi, and how it can be reclaimed effectively was jointly released by Mr. Suresh Prabhu, former Union Minister of Environment and Forests, and Mr. Rajendra Singh, the Ramon Magsaysay Award winner and a noted water activist.

Mauritius deepens India’s naval reach
Mar 08, 2024

Mauritius deepens India’s naval reach

With Maldives veering towards China, Mauritius is emerging as a decisive factor in ensuring India’s dominance in the Indian Ocean Region