Search: For - income

143 results found

India needs to increase public spending
Feb 04, 2014

India needs to increase public spending

India, which has experienced a 4.6 per cent growth rate in 2013-14, requires higher public spending on infrastructure. More public services and goods are needed to bring relief to the lower income groups, especially health services, otherwise they are likely to slip into poverty.

India not ready for RCEP
Dec 28, 2020

India not ready for RCEP

Indian growth over the last three decades has been largely consumption driven, but consumption has been hit by lockdown.

Indian Consumption Expenditure Survey: Focusing beyond the trends
Mar 29, 2024

Indian Consumption Expenditure Survey: Focusing beyond the trends

By studying India’s consumption patterns over time, effective policies can be undertaken to boost India’s economic growth

India’s Energy Transition in a Climate-Constrained World
Nov 27, 2015

India’s Energy Transition in a Climate-Constrained World

Energy transitions in developing economies like India are complex processes involving substantial financial and technological resources as well as appropriate innovation. These transitions are central to the climate debate, where emphasis is placed on increasing the share of renewables in the energy mix to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change. This paper examines the historical attributes of energy transition and finds various critical

India’s UPI Market: Projections for Growth Under Various GDP Scenarios
Sep 08, 2023

India’s UPI Market: Projections for Growth Under Various GDP Scenarios

This paper projects the nationwide and state-wise size of India’s Unified Payments Interface (UPI) market under various GDP growth scenarios. The market sizes under these scenarios are expressed in monetary values at the scale of both sub-national units and the Indian economy as a whole. With the help of transactions and market share data from Phonepe, a UPI company, the paper estimates the national and state-wise base case scenario market volu

Indo-Nepal borderland: The fate of migrant labourers
May 07, 2020

Indo-Nepal borderland: The fate of migrant labourers

The plight of the Nepali migrant labourers stuck in foreign countries like India advertently questions the interest of these labourers to travel abroa

Inequalities equally visible in China as in India
Oct 12, 2013

Inequalities equally visible in China as in India

India and China have many similarities and the inequalities in incomes are clearly visible in China as in India, according to Mr. M.R. Sivaraman, former Revenue Secretary of the Government of India.

Innovate, outsource to fund, deliver services
Feb 14, 2018

Innovate, outsource to fund, deliver services

The conundrum is that higher growth needs higher public spends of around 6-8 per cent of GDP on infrastructure, health and education.

Interim Budget: The political economy of stagnation
Feb 01, 2019

Interim Budget: The political economy of stagnation

The puzzle of India’s political economy is to reconcile the expectations of “Great Society” welfare with stagnating middle-income productivity.

International cooperation for assistive technology in conflict zones
Jun 18, 2024

International cooperation for assistive technology in conflict zones

International cooperation is critical for developing an overarching policy to ensure equitable access to assistive technology, especially in fragile a

Is increasing wealth inequality coming in the way of economic growth in India?
Oct 21, 2021

Is increasing wealth inequality coming in the way of economic growth in India?

Empirical data implies that increase in the income of lower income group directly translates into an increase in consumption. Therefore, the governmen

It’s time government shows the middle class some love
Jun 30, 2018

It’s time government shows the middle class some love

By taxing both income and consumption at punitive rates, the government drains the surplus with the middle class, which could have been used more efficiently for higher consumption, triggering higher production or savings, leading to more funds for investments.

Japanese assistance drives Indian growth
Jun 07, 2013

Japanese assistance drives Indian growth

Japanese ODA has eased the burden of borrowing in the Indian market. Moreover, with the Japanese economy still struggling to induce growth, investments in India offer an avenue to earn interest income. Increased Japanese FDI is also likely to give a huge boost to the Indian economy.

Job creation, protection and equality: Lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic
Jan 27, 2021

Job creation, protection and equality: Lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic

India’s leap into the services and IT sector without first going through the appropriate growth models and methods of educating and skilling its ent

Jobs for the Poor 'the Employment Guarantee Scheme
Jan 11, 2005

Jobs for the Poor 'the Employment Guarantee Scheme

In industrial countries , with several times higher per capita incomes than India, an 'unemployment benefit' or dole is given to unemployed citizens. In India, the unemployed are supposed to fall back on their own means for survival. The Employment Guarantee Scheme Act that has been introduced in the Parliament recently is meant to address the basic human need for a job ( though it may be only for 100 days).

Leveraging the Global Macroeconomic Environment for Recovery and Growth: Opportunities for G20 Under India’s Presidency
Aug 04, 2022

Leveraging the Global Macroeconomic Environment for Recovery and Growth: Opportunities for G20 Under India’s Presidency

The global macroeconomy has undergone unprecedented change in recent years, particularly because of the COVID-19 pandemic. While the G20 had an effective coordinating role in steering the global economy through the 2008 global financial crisis, its role in engineering an inclusive and sustainable recovery from the pandemic has been more mixed. Incomes in the advanced G20 economies are on track to return to pre-pandemic levels by end-2022 but have

Making jobs work for India
Jul 23, 2018

Making jobs work for India

India’s job challenges is about more than creating enough jobs.

Mapping the Literature on Development Assistance in Health: A Bibliometric Analysis
Apr 22, 2024

Mapping the Literature on Development Assistance in Health: A Bibliometric Analysis

This paper presents a bibliometric analysis of the literature on private health aid and official health assistance between 2000 and 2022. It provides an overview of the sites and themes in the literature pertaining to development assistance in health, and collates the significant policy recommendations presented therein. Several crucial findings emerge from the bibliometric analysis: 44.2 percent of the 489 papers/articles assessed focused on low

Minding the labour market gaps: Fiscal measures and beyond
Oct 30, 2020

Minding the labour market gaps: Fiscal measures and beyond

Governments need to use expansionary fiscal policies to diminish the huge loss in consumption demand due to the sharp rise in global unemployment.

MSME के लिए प्रबंधन प्रशिक्षण के माध्यम से निम्न और मध्यम आय वाले देशों में औद्योगिक विकास को प्रोत्साहित करने की  ...
Jun 06, 2023

MSME के लिए प्रबंधन प्रशिक्षण के माध्यम से निम्न और मध्यम आय वाले देशों में औद्योगिक विकास को प्रोत्साहित करने की कोशिश!

निम्न और मध्यम आय वाले देशों (LMIC) में रोज़गार सृजन और गरीबी में कमी लाने के लिए औद्योगिक विकास बेहद अहम होता है. औद्योगिक विकास से पर्यावरणीय स्थिरता में भी सुधार हो सकता है. ले

Natural Gas Consumption in India: The Tale of Two Sectors
Jun 16, 2022

Natural Gas Consumption in India: The Tale of Two Sectors

Natural gas consumption in India has fallen due to reduction in domestic gas availability.

Need for multi-tasked  mechanisms for investigation and prosecution in corruption cases
Dec 18, 2010

Need for multi-tasked mechanisms for investigation and prosecution in corruption cases

Participants at an interaction at ORF Chennai called for a multi-disciplinary task force to investigate scams of the kind of 2G, rather than individual investigating arms of the Government, like the CBI, Enforcement Directorate, Income-tax and other authorities undertaking parallel and separate investigations.

Need for reforms in farm production
Jun 04, 2013

Need for reforms in farm production

Though GDP growth in India may be less than China's, there are not so many problems that the government is facing except perhaps the latest problem of accelerated insurgency by the Maoists. Like China, India should also be worried about reducing the glaring inequality of incomes and balanced development between the rural and urban areas.

Need for social safety net for jobless and sick
Oct 04, 2013

Need for social safety net for jobless and sick

Even if GDP growth rises in India, there will be growing inequalities unless there are strong policies aimed at the uplift of the vulnerable sections and the rich are taxed in an efficient and judicious manner. There should be some insurance against unemployment and sickness which will enable low income families to live with dignity.

Nepal's sluggish economic growth: Causes and cure
Mar 01, 2012

Nepal's sluggish economic growth: Causes and cure

Going by the latest economic status of the countries of the world, it looks like Nepal is joining the league of Sub-Saharan Africa. With a per capita income of $490.

Nutrition Garden: A sustainable model to improve food diversity and security in Africa
Jun 18, 2019

Nutrition Garden: A sustainable model to improve food diversity and security in Africa

Kitchen gardens can help strengthen food security and improve income generation and livelihoods.

Old women: The “hidden workforce” and not at all dependent
Mar 07, 2024

Old women: The “hidden workforce” and not at all dependent

Despite being labelled as dependents, older women, especially from low-income households, contribute significantly through unpaid and paid work, witho

Overcoming data challenges in tracking India’s health and nutrition targets
Dec 29, 2016

Overcoming data challenges in tracking India’s health and nutrition targets

In May 2016, the Health Secretaries of the States and Union Territories of India gathered in the capital and issued “The Delhi Commitment on Sustainable Development Goals for Health”. Among others, the document acknowledged the need to invest in health data collection, analysis and research so that these can properly inform government policies and strategies necessary to address the various challenges facing India’s healthcare. Such commitm

Placing women at the centre of building resilient and inclusive cities
Jan 29, 2021

Placing women at the centre of building resilient and inclusive cities

Marginalised sections of the urban population, particularly women, are disproportionately affected by environmental degradation and extreme climate ch

Policy imperatives for India’s small farmers
May 23, 2023

Policy imperatives for India’s small farmers

This paper examines the various constraints faced by India’s small and marginal farmers, which severely affect the productivity of their lands, and thus their incomes. These obstacles cover the gamut of farming activities, from production to storage, and accessing markets. A recent government survey has said that four of every ten of the country’s farmers disliked farming, and would prefer another occupation if given a choice. While the gover

Poverty Alleviation and Political Primacy: The Way of the Chinese Communist Party
Sep 22, 2021

Poverty Alleviation and Political Primacy: The Way of the Chinese Communist Party

Nearly 100 million people are said to have been lifted out of poverty in China since 2012, coinciding with President Xi Jinping's reign as general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Indeed, closing the income gap is a stated goal of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-25) and part of the CCP's objectives till 2035. As resentment of the rich has grown, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, Xi has encouraged the wealthy to embrace austeri

Poverty, Criminality, Extremism: The Interrelated Sources of Insecurity in Maldives
Aug 16, 2023

Poverty, Criminality, Extremism: The Interrelated Sources of Insecurity in Maldives

Maldives, or the Maldive islands in the north-central Indian Ocean, is widely regarded as a paradise by holiday-seekers from across the world. Yet, its own people are beset by severe issues of insecurity. This brief investigates the various threats to security in the island nation, primary of which is the massive income inequality. It outlines a political and religious history of the nation, and explores their influence in the current sta

Promoting a ‘GDP of the Poor’: The imperative of integrating ecosystems valuation in development policy
Mar 17, 2020

Promoting a ‘GDP of the Poor’: The imperative of integrating ecosystems valuation in development policy

This paper argues in favour of integrating valuation of ecosystem services in development policy planning in India. The paper presents three cases where monetary values of ecosystem services have been estimated to illustrate the significance of the exercise: the Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) in Uttarakhand, the Kunigal Wetlands in Karnataka, and the Indian Sundarbans Delta (ISD) in West Bengal. The first two cases highlight the ecosystem-livelihoods

Protection of children during the COVID-19 pandemic: Consequences and necessary measures
Sep 14, 2021

Protection of children during the COVID-19 pandemic: Consequences and necessary measures

The pandemic has exacerbated the income and digital divide in Brazil, particularly amongst the children and youth demographic

Pursuit of an inclusive and equitable healthcare system
Mar 08, 2024

Pursuit of an inclusive and equitable healthcare system

As part of this effort, the Observer Research Foundation (ORF) launched a report, Health Equity and Inclusion in Action, which seeks to examine the ways different health initiatives in six countries across Asia and Africa are exploring to address this complex problem. The report, created by the ORF in collaboration with Gilead Sciences who commissioned it, examines case studies from Bangladesh, India, Morocco, Rwanda, South Africa and Vietnam to

Reform to retain ‘emerging market economy’ tag
Sep 09, 2019

Reform to retain ‘emerging market economy’ tag

India aspires to be a developed country by 2047 which may or may not be possible. For the present, vigorous reforms will be needed.

Regenerative Agriculture: A solution for soil degradation
May 11, 2023

Regenerative Agriculture: A solution for soil degradation

Regenerative Agriculture can reduce India’s agricultural carbon footprint while boosting farmers’ income

Renewing our future at Glasgow
Sep 23, 2021

Renewing our future at Glasgow

Over the foreseeable future, only massive advances in renewable technology and storage options can reverse the tide of carbon emissions from the incre

Resource use efficiency and productivity: An analysis of India’s food grain sector
Jan 07, 2020

Resource use efficiency and productivity: An analysis of India’s food grain sector

The concept of food security comprises access, affordability, food safety, food preferences and dietary patterns. Recently, there has been a demand-driven shift in food consumption patterns in India towards nutrition-rich and economically high-value horticulture (fruits and vegetables), livestock and dairy products. Providing for such consumption needs will require diversification of agricultural production beyond the staples, especially wheat an

Reviewing India's Non-Ownership Housing Scheme
Sep 30, 2022

Reviewing India's Non-Ownership Housing Scheme

There is a need to provide access to safe and affordable rental housing complexes in urban areas to economically weaker sections of society.

Russia’s Demographic trajectory: dimensions and implications
Jul 24, 2023

Russia’s Demographic trajectory: dimensions and implications

Demographic trends in Russia since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 have largely been unfavourable. Deaths exceeded births for the first time in 1992, and a period of negative growth followed which continued unabated until 2012 when marginal growth was achieved for the first time in two decades. This paper studies the demographic patterns in Russia since 1991, which are unique for several reasons. While population decline is common amo

SDGs and Structural Vulnerabilities: The Case of BIMSTEC Countries
Feb 21, 2022

SDGs and Structural Vulnerabilities: The Case of BIMSTEC Countries

This paper studies the case of the countries of BIMSTEC (Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation) to investigate if progress towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) plays an instrumental role in addressing structural vulnerabilities. It finds that it does. Despite improvements in certain SDGs such as increasing per-capita income levels, improving healthcare, and providing universal

Social Marginalisation in Urban India and the Role of the State
Sep 15, 2023

Social Marginalisation in Urban India and the Role of the State

Urban inequality is a blight experienced by many cities, even in the developed world.In developing countries like India, these social and economic inequalities become even morepronounced, with living conditions in certain populations crossing the line to the abysmal. Inthese cities, agencies responsible for addressing welfare concerns are unable to do so, as theythemselves grapple with a host of challenges. This paper argues that any positive tra

Social mobility in India: Determinants and recommendations for change
May 24, 2023

Social mobility in India: Determinants and recommendations for change

Social mobility reveals the degree to which an individual’s starting point in life determines their chances in the future, and therefore the extent to which talent is rewarded with opportunity. A stronger association between one’s starting point and their outcomes in adulthood, indicates lower social mobility and less meritocracy. For India, realising the potential of its population will be a key driver of progress and growth. This brief expl

South-South cooperation: Old order with new challenges
Nov 04, 2015

South-South cooperation: Old order with new challenges

Beyond 2015, South-South cooperation will have to increase and continue to support developing countries, with a special emphasis on poor and low-income countries in Asia and Africa facing sustainable development challenges.

Sri Lanka, China and Hambantota
Aug 16, 2017

Sri Lanka, China and Hambantota

Sri Lankans still hope to get jobs and incomes from Trinco development plans — it has not happened in the case of Hambantota.