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Emotions and Vote Choice: Perspectives from the US and India
Mar 02, 2021

Emotions and Vote Choice: Perspectives from the US and India

While the idea that emotional appeal is central to political persuasion may serve common intuition, the dynamics underscoring how and why this is so, remain underexplored. This primer collates insights from neuroscience and political psychology to show why emotions are essential to vote choice. It explores the effects of emotional appeals on voter perceptions using examples from campaign advertisements in US elections. The analysis finds that pol

For BIMSTEC to work, fix BBIN first
Aug 30, 2018

For BIMSTEC to work, fix BBIN first

As Prime Minister Modi prepares to signal India’s leadership role in Kathmandu, an analysis of India’s role in the MVA process will prove instruct

From Rio to Paris: India in global climate politics
Dec 24, 2017

From Rio to Paris: India in global climate politics

This paper analyses India’s participation in more than two decades of global climate politics. India has transitioned from a protest voice on the fringes of global climate policy to one that is actively shaping international efforts to combat climate change. Analysis of the drivers behind India’s negotiating positions on climate change thus far has focused on the competing motives of equity and co-benefits, which has however been insufficient

Health equity through transparency and accountability
Sep 25, 2017

Health equity through transparency and accountability

Healthcare in India could use the help of better data and analysis from both public health systems and private sector interventions.

Hoodwinking as usual
Aug 01, 2005

Hoodwinking as usual

It does not require much investigation or analysis to prove that Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf is not really inclined to set his house in order when it comes to terrorism.Take his July 22 address to the nation. He seemed to be at pains to explain how Pakistan itself was a victim of terrorism.

How does the new SANKALP project fit into the evolving Skill India Mission?
Sep 25, 2019

How does the new SANKALP project fit into the evolving Skill India Mission?

If administrative features improve, SANKALP can definitely make a positive difference in the ever-evolving skilling landscape of the country.

How radicalised is Pakistan Army?
Sep 20, 2007

How radicalised is Pakistan Army?

How radicalised is Pakistan Army today? was the question which formed the focal point of an intense discussion organised by Observer Research Foundation on September 20. Well-known academics, journalists, experts and military officers attended the discussion which was chaired by Mr Vikram Sood, Vice President (International Affairs), ORF and former chief of Research & Analysis Wing.

Improving asset productivity: The key to revitalising the Indian Railways
Feb 13, 2019

Improving asset productivity: The key to revitalising the Indian Railways

The financial health of the Indian Railways, the single largest employer in the Government of India, has been in a dismal state for some time now. With the recent merging of the railways budget with the general budget, it has become a daunting exercise to conduct an analysis of railway finances. Yet, it is no doubt in the national interest to not only locate the shortcomings in the system but also explore solutions to improve performance. This pa

Independence for Kosovo: Secession or Self-Determination?
Aug 14, 2008

Independence for Kosovo: Secession or Self-Determination?

Is the United States in the process of creating a brand new Muslim bloc? If that be the case, it would know that the execution of the plan necessarily involves the cessation of Kosovo from Serbia in the name of "Self-Determination". This, Russia will not allow at any cost. Belgrade is Moscow's Slav ally. And, in a complex way, the Albanian-Serb and the Washington-Moscow stand-off links up with the global scramble for energy source

India: Understanding the structural drivers for political defections
Jan 13, 2021

India: Understanding the structural drivers for political defections

A deeper analysis of the working of the party structures and leadership style is necessary to unravel the fundamental factors that create the breeding

Indian and European engagement patterns in Sub-Saharan Africa
Apr 01, 2021

Indian and European engagement patterns in Sub-Saharan Africa

A cross-analysis of the three regions indicates multiple complementarities between India and Europe vis-à-vis Africa — and that there are good reasons to initiate triangular cooperation in certain sectors.

Indian investments in Africa: Scale, trends, and policy recommendations
May 24, 2017

Indian investments in Africa: Scale, trends, and policy recommendations

Indian investments in Africa, from both public and private sector entities, have increased considerably in the last decade. Yet despite the growing importance of Indian investments in Africa, only a few empirical studies have been carried out on the subject. This paper undertakes a disaggregated analysis of Indian foreign direct investment outflows to Africa from 2008 to 2016, and presents three main findings. First, it confirms earlier analyses

India’s Gender Digital Divide: Women and Politics on Twitter
Oct 29, 2015

India’s Gender Digital Divide: Women and Politics on Twitter

This study explores the spatial politics of Othering and whether women aremarginalized in political conversations online in India. It's methodology consists of an analysis of23,350 tweets over an eight-day period. It shows a significant underrepresentation of women inTwitter's political conversations, which mirrors a real-world marginalization of women in India'spolitical processes.

India’s UPI Market: Projections for Growth Under Various GDP Scenarios
Sep 08, 2023

India’s UPI Market: Projections for Growth Under Various GDP Scenarios

This paper projects the nationwide and state-wise size of India’s Unified Payments Interface (UPI) market under various GDP growth scenarios. The market sizes under these scenarios are expressed in monetary values at the scale of both sub-national units and the Indian economy as a whole. With the help of transactions and market share data from Phonepe, a UPI company, the paper estimates the national and state-wise base case scenario market volu

Indo-Pak Economic Ties: Ground Realities
Nov 26, 2004

Indo-Pak Economic Ties: Ground Realities

Analyses and discussions in matters relating to Indo-Pakistan economic relations continue to be marked by considerable wishful-thinking, superficial analysis and illusions. This article, in the form of questions and answers, tries to project the problem in its proper perspective.

International Jihadi Terrorism: A US Perspective - Part III
May 03, 2005

International Jihadi Terrorism: A US Perspective - Part III

India has been a major beneficiary of the decision of the Bush Administration to transfer the responsibility for the compilation and analysis of statistical data relating to significant international terrorist attacks from the Counter-Terrorism Division of the State Department to the newly-created National Counter-Terrorism Centre (NCTC) presently headed by John Brennan as the acting Director.

Investigating the Impact of Commodity Transaction Tax on India’s Commodity Derivatives Markets
May 11, 2021

Investigating the Impact of Commodity Transaction Tax on India’s Commodity Derivatives Markets

The Commodity Transaction Tax (CTT) was imposed on non-agricultural commodity derivatives trading in India from 1 July 2013. This paper investigates the impact of the CTT on some of the efficiency parameters of the commodity derivative markets in India. The authors analysed daily trading data from January 2006 to December 2019 of Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX) of India for five non-agricultural commodities: aluminium, copper, crude oil, gold, and

Is China’s loss, India’s gain? An examination of the US tariff war
Nov 20, 2018

Is China’s loss, India’s gain? An examination of the US tariff war

The unilateral tariff imposition by the United States on various countries has started a trade war that threatens to adversely affect the world’s major economies. This paper finds that no country, including the US itself, is likely to benefit from a tariff war. In India, some analysts had expected that the country’s export penetration in the US and elsewhere will increase, as China loses out. An analysis of trade data, however, shows that whi

Kejriwal has an edge over Narendra Modi and Rahul Gandhi
Jan 14, 2014

Kejriwal has an edge over Narendra Modi and Rahul Gandhi

If the final list of prime ministerial candidates consists of only Narendra Modi, Rahul Gandhi and possibly a third front candidate like Nitish Kumar or anyone else, Arvind Kejriwal will surely be there as the people's candidate. And, in the final analysis, the chances of Kejriwal clinching the highest leadership in the country are brighter than those of Narendra Modi or Rahul Gandhi.

Land degradation neutrality and restoration: Does gender matter?
Jun 04, 2024

Land degradation neutrality and restoration: Does gender matter?

Given the gendered impact of land degradation, integrating a gender-inclusive cost-benefit analysis framework to address these adverse impacts on wome

Leadership Challenges and the COVID-19 Pandemic
Feb 11, 2021

Leadership Challenges and the COVID-19 Pandemic

The paper examines the role of political leaders, public and private agents (governments, private agencies, NGOs), and followers (public, citizens, community) in the war on COVID-19. It argues that the role of agents and followers is often underestimated; that while the leaders’ contributions are important and necessary, they are not sufficient. The success or failure of leaders will depend as much on these actors as on their own competence, co

Maritime terrorism in Asia: An assessment
Oct 14, 2019

Maritime terrorism in Asia: An assessment

This paper evaluates the possibility of an increase in maritime terrorist violence in Asia, based on a recounting and analysis of some of the most recent past incidents in these waters. It argues that the vulnerability of high seas shipping to criminal acts of violence and the weak and inconsistent nature of maritime governance raises the possibility of a terrorist strike in the Asian littorals. In assessing the odds of a major terrorist attack i

Mukherjee’s Middle East Visit: Setting a New Template?
Dec 04, 2015

Mukherjee’s Middle East Visit: Setting a New Template?

President Pranab Mukherjee's visit to Jordan, Palestine and Israel in October was different for its content and long-term implications. A careful analysis of his statements and speeches in Amman, Ramallah and Jerusalem indicates a new Indian template for its engagement with the Middle East. While some of his observations were a reiteration of the traditional Indian positions since the early 20th century, they also signal a more nuanced approach t

Multistakeholder policy making very important: Google official
May 01, 2015

Multistakeholder policy making very important: Google official

The future of the internet is by no means simple, and that the deeper the analysis became, the more complicated it would be, according to Vint Cerf, Vice President and Chief Internet Evangelist at Google.

Mumbai attacks: Time to Rethink CT Strategy
Jul 16, 2011

Mumbai attacks: Time to Rethink CT Strategy

The coordinated serial bombings in Mumbai on July 13, 2011, have raised serious questions about India's counter-terrorism (CT) policies which rely more on technology enablers and not as much on robust intelligence gathering and analysis at the local as well as national level.

Mumbai Metro 3 car shed at Aarey colony
Sep 18, 2020

Mumbai Metro 3 car shed at Aarey colony

The Maharashtra government should dispassionately conduct a rigorous cost-benefit analysis before committing to an alternative site for the Metro 3 ca

Navigating Contemporary Philippine Foreign Policy Under Marcos Jr.
Jun 20, 2023

Navigating Contemporary Philippine Foreign Policy Under Marcos Jr.

The Philippines continues to be embroiled in the overarching regional dynamics of Southeast Asia influenced by the intensifying power competition between its traditional ally, the United States and its largest immediate neighbour, China. Such geopolitical configurations have put significant pressure on the current administration of President Ferdinand “Bongbong” Marcos Jr. to steer the Philippines through turbulent waters. Thi

Need for proper structure of PPPs to address specific cyberspace risks
Jul 02, 2015

Need for proper structure of PPPs to address specific cyberspace risks

Experts say mere compliance with an international cyber security standard does not ensure that a product being used in a CII is protected from invasion. Threat analysis, mitigation systems and assessment practices need to be adopted to attain total protection of CII.

Oh justice!
Aug 31, 2019

Oh justice!

Various aspects of Nazi rule have received copious amounts of attention in the form of books, documentaries, films and a range of highly scholastic an

Opportunities and Challenges for the Quad’s Working Group on Counterterrorism
Jul 03, 2023

Opportunities and Challenges for the Quad’s Working Group on Counterterrorism

In March 2023, the foreign ministers of India, Japan, Australia, and the US (that form the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, or Quad) announced the establishment of a working group on countering terrorism. While the urgency of counterterrorism cooperation may have arguably faded in political debate in recent years, it remains steady in military-to-military cooperation at the bilateral and multilateral levels. In a fast-changing glo

ORF-GIZ Urban Workshop Series Need for effective implementation of urban development plans
Sep 24, 2013

ORF-GIZ Urban Workshop Series Need for effective implementation of urban development plans

Preparation of a town/city plan is a comprehensive exercise involving collection, tabulation and analysis of data on numerous urban development indicators. The enormous amount of time, labour and resources involved in this process usually go to waste as compliance to plan proposals is often quite minimal.

Overcoming data challenges in tracking India’s health and nutrition targets
Dec 29, 2016

Overcoming data challenges in tracking India’s health and nutrition targets

In May 2016, the Health Secretaries of the States and Union Territories of India gathered in the capital and issued “The Delhi Commitment on Sustainable Development Goals for Health”. Among others, the document acknowledged the need to invest in health data collection, analysis and research so that these can properly inform government policies and strategies necessary to address the various challenges facing India’s healthcare. Such commitm

Pakistani Nukes in Jihadi Hands
Feb 25, 2004

Pakistani Nukes in Jihadi Hands

Ever since a crestfallen Dr. A Q Khan admitted sheepishly on PTV that he had masterminded the sale of nuclear designs and materials to other countries, there has been a tirade of articles and letters to the editor berating Pakistan for nuclear proliferation. However, no real analysis has emerged about the implications for India, particularly of the likelihood of Pakistani nuclear warheads falling into Jihadi hands.

Paradiplomacy: Can India learn from Macau and China?
Oct 20, 2016

Paradiplomacy: Can India learn from Macau and China?

Paradiplomacy forms a quintessential part of the country’s foreign policy analysis in conducting international relations

Parallel licencing in electricity distribution in Mumbai: Muddle or model?
May 14, 2024

Parallel licencing in electricity distribution in Mumbai: Muddle or model?

Balancing competition and monopolies in network industries, Mumbai's inadvertent parallel licensing in electricity retail serves as a focal point for

Path to full GDP recovery is likely to be long and arduous
Sep 08, 2021

Path to full GDP recovery is likely to be long and arduous

A statistical analysis of the recovery the Indian economy post pandemic

Pitfalls in making assumptions about Chinese PLA’s military-political behaviour
May 02, 2019

Pitfalls in making assumptions about Chinese PLA’s military-political behaviour

Assumptions are a necessary part of statecraft and military planning. However, there are dangers in making incorrect presuppositions, especially those related to social, cultural or quasi-cultural aspects of an adversary that are then predicted to have an impact on military-political outcomes. This paper examines some of the most common political-military assumptions about the Chinese People’s Liberation Army that are inherently problematic, as

Policy Recommendations for Achieving India’s Defence-Export Ambitions
Nov 23, 2023

Policy Recommendations for Achieving India’s Defence-Export Ambitions

This brief assesses the recent trends in India’s defence exports and analyses the institutional and policy frameworks that have enabled a change in the country’s approach towards defence exports, resulting in an upward trajectory. It offers specific policy recommendations to allow India to pursue its target of US$5 billion in defence export revenue. However, a discussion on the types and forms of weapons, platforms, systems, or sub-systems ex

Post-Pandemic Economic Recovery: Seven Priorities for India
Jan 14, 2021

Post-Pandemic Economic Recovery: Seven Priorities for India

This paper examines the pre-pandemic slowdown, and subsequent contraction, in Indian economy. Utilising an analysis of broad macroeconomic and sectoral fundamentals, the paper argues that a notable lack of consumption and investment demand had already persisted before the pandemic; COVID-19 heightened those trends. Henceforth, India’s economic revival will be crucially dependent on demand generation by direct government fiscal intervention. The

Public Credit Guarantee for Small Enterprises in India: An Explainer
Jun 10, 2021

Public Credit Guarantee for Small Enterprises in India: An Explainer

In many parts of the world, including India, Public Credit Guarantee Programmes (PCGP) improve access to credit for small enterprises that are unable to obtain assistance from mainstream financers. This brief discusses the relevance of PCGPs in India, their mechanisms, features, and efficiency. Although these programmes have improved access to credit for MSMEs (micro, small and medium enterprises), there are concerns regarding their efficiency an

Quantifying COVID: All pandemic models are wrong; some are useful and some aren’t
Apr 01, 2022

Quantifying COVID: All pandemic models are wrong; some are useful and some aren’t

A critical analysis of the research presented by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) on the estimate of excess mortality from the

Rare diseases in India: Still a blind spot
Feb 28, 2021

Rare diseases in India: Still a blind spot

On Rare Disease Day, an analysis of India’s policy for those suffering from these ailments

Real Politics, Imagined Futures: The Influence of Geopolitics and Technological Development on Science Fiction Since the 20th Century
Jul 10, 2024

Real Politics, Imagined Futures: The Influence of Geopolitics and Technological Development on Science Fiction Since the 20th Century

This brief examines the reciprocal relationship between science fiction and real-world technological, geopolitical, and policy developments throughout the 20th century and into the 21st. Beginning in the 1940s, the analysis explores how the genre has evolved amid historical events such as the World Wars and the Cold War, and the rise of digital technology. The brief gives particular attention to the role of science fiction during periods of criti

Regionalisation: A Better Strategy in a Post-Pandemic World?
May 10, 2023

Regionalisation: A Better Strategy in a Post-Pandemic World?

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced nation states to shut down borders and to look decidedly inwards. In this newly emerging and highly tenuous global political economic landscape, a question that is being widely debated is what globalisation will look like in a post-pandemic world. This brief ponders the question in the context of India and its neighbourhood. Revisiting theoretical insights from ‘New Regionalism’, this analysis examines whether

Reimagining communities: Making a case for mental health through online gaming
May 31, 2022

Reimagining communities: Making a case for mental health through online gaming

An analysis of how online gaming could have a positive effect on the mental health of an individual.

Reimagining India’s Engagement with BIMSTEC
May 11, 2023

Reimagining India’s Engagement with BIMSTEC

This brief outlines a framework for India if it is to play a more proactive role in integrating and reimagining its immediate neighbourhood, in particular with reference to the economic relations with its BIMSTEC partners. The analysis is done in the context of important economic and strategic developments in the Asia-Pacific region in the recent years. It describes how India can navigate between competing economic and geo-strategic imperatives b

Road Safety: Why do Indian roads top the international table of road deaths?
Jun 23, 2022

Road Safety: Why do Indian roads top the international table of road deaths?

A detailed analysis of why India ranks at the top of the international table of fatalities caused by road crashes, and the measures the Indian governm

Solving India’s Nuclear Liability Conundrum
Jan 22, 2015

Solving India’s Nuclear Liability Conundrum

This Paper offers a broad and objective analysis on the controversial issue of 'uclear liability', India's concerns and provides a recommendation for a coherent and comprehensive approach to resolve this conundrum.