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Recommendations on Arms Procurement Reforms in India
Sep 25, 2012

Recommendations on Arms Procurement Reforms in India

The Observer Research Foundation's programme on Defence Procurement Reforms, following a seminar organised in May, 2012, has now moved to the second stage of identifying initiatives that can be taken in the executive and legislative branches. This Paper presents practical recommendations to improve capacities and decision-making methodologies in India's arms procurement system.

Regional Integration in West Africa: The Evolution of ECOWAS
Dec 05, 2015

Regional Integration in West Africa: The Evolution of ECOWAS

The paradox of the African continent is that it is resource-rich but remains poor in many parts. Has regional integration improved economic performance and does it pave the way to a better future? This paper examines West African integration--its evolution, the successes it has scored and the challenges that remain.

Resolving the India-China Boundary Dispute: Incentivising Cooperation, Enlarging Bargaining Space and Promoting Constructive Strategies
May 25, 2012

Resolving the India-China Boundary Dispute: Incentivising Cooperation, Enlarging Bargaining Space and Promoting Constructive Strategies

Pessimism towards a foreseeable settlement of the India-China border dispute is not unfounded. At the political level, there is a "trust deficit" which impedes cooperation. Despite the existence of multi-tiered mechanisms to facilitate resolution, there has hardly been any progress on the issue in recent years. This paper identifies the obstacles and explores how a peaceful settlement of the India-China border dispute could be arrived at in the f

Responding to China’s rise: Japan and India as champions for the rule of law in the Indo-Pacific
Aug 24, 2017

Responding to China’s rise: Japan and India as champions for the rule of law in the Indo-Pacific

The Indo-Pacific region is experiencing profound geo-strategic re-alignments. Post-war norms are being challenged by a rising China that is unconstrained by the established legal, economic and diplomatic order. These changes come at a time of growing uncertainty over US commitments to both its regional allies and a liberal international trade regime. In the absence of American leadership, the only formidable and practical alternative is the emerg

Resurgence of Al-Qaeda in South Asia Post-US Drawdown
Jul 10, 2015

Resurgence of Al-Qaeda in South Asia Post-US Drawdown

An examination of the prospects for al-Qaeda following the US drawdown in Afghanistan and the likely threats which the region, and India in particular, might face in the future. A supplementary scrutiny of ISIS, and the group's possible expansion in the region, is also proffered.

Rethinking the relevance of existing credit rating agencies to BRICS
May 24, 2017

Rethinking the relevance of existing credit rating agencies to BRICS

Global growth is expected to experience an uptick this year due to renewed economic activity in the emerging and developing market economies. These economies have large investment requirements for infrastructure development and maintaining a sustainable level of economic growth—for which they are dependent on international credit markets. With the growing need of economies to borrow capital abroad, the role of credit rating agencies—most of t

Rohingya Crisis: रोहिंग्या शिविरों में सुरक्षा बढ़ाने की ज़रूरत
Jul 30, 2023

Rohingya Crisis: रोहिंग्या शिविरों में सुरक्षा बढ़ाने की ज़रूरत

डॉक्टर्स विदाउट बॉर्डर्स संस्था के मुताबिक, पांच साल से �

Royal Succession in Saudi Arabia: Challenges before the Desert Kingdom
Feb 11, 2015

Royal Succession in Saudi Arabia: Challenges before the Desert Kingdom

With a new king in power, this paper looks at royal politics in Saudi Arabia and identifies topical domestic and regional challenges from the Saudi perspective.

Rules-Based Maritime Security in Asia: A View from New Delhi
Aug 17, 2020

Rules-Based Maritime Security in Asia: A View from New Delhi

The Rules-Based Order (RBO) underpins the global maritime trading and security system. A subject of growing discussion and debate in strategic studies circles, it is seen by many as a prerequisite for seaborne trade and commerce, and a crucial factor in formulating national security policy. While many Asian powers have a shared understanding of the principles of maritime conduct, regional states have tended to situate the RBO within the framework

Russia-EU Relations: The End of a Strategic Partnership
Mar 11, 2021

Russia-EU Relations: The End of a Strategic Partnership

The end of the Cold War in 1991 presented Russia and the European Union (EU) with an opportunity to reorganise their bilateral relationship. For more than a decade, they did manage to nurture close ties. Beginning in the mid-2000s, however, the relationship steadily declined, reaching its lowest in 2014 in the aftermath of the Ukrainian crisis. As mutual grievances have accumulated since then, there has been an absence of a forward-looking agenda

Russia-Ukraine War: यूक्रेन संकट के प्रति नेपाल की प्रतिक्रिया!
Jul 31, 2023

Russia-Ukraine War: यूक्रेन संकट के प्रति नेपाल की प्रतिक्रिया!

क्या नेपाल अपनी गैर संरेखण नीति को छोड़ रहा है और वेस्टर्न

Russia-Ukraine War: रूस और यूक्रेन के बीच जारी युद्ध को रोकने की कोशिशें कहां हो रही हैं?
Jul 26, 2023

Russia-Ukraine War: रूस और यूक्रेन के बीच जारी युद्ध को रोकने की कोशिशें कहां हो रही हैं?

रूस और यूक्रेन के बीच जारीwar को समाप्त करने और शांति स्थाप�

Russia’s Demographic trajectory: dimensions and implications
Jul 24, 2023

Russia’s Demographic trajectory: dimensions and implications

Demographic trends in Russia since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 have largely been unfavourable. Deaths exceeded births for the first time in 1992, and a period of negative growth followed which continued unabated until 2012 when marginal growth was achieved for the first time in two decades. This paper studies the demographic patterns in Russia since 1991, which are unique for several reasons. While population decline is common amo

Russia’s Relations in Southeast Asia since 2014: Continuity and Change
Aug 20, 2020

Russia’s Relations in Southeast Asia since 2014: Continuity and Change

This paper outlines the development of Russia’s relations with the countries of Southeast Asia, focusing on the years after 2014. As relations with the West reached a new post-Cold War low, Moscow has intensified its efforts at building stronger ties with the East. The paper deals with the impact of these developments on the state of its political, economic and defense engagement in Southeast Asia, both bilaterally and multilaterally. It will s

SAARC vs BIMSTEC: The search for the ideal platform for regional cooperation
Aug 17, 2023

SAARC vs BIMSTEC: The search for the ideal platform for regional cooperation

The failure of SAARC to nurture cooperation in South Asia has pushed regional players to search for an alternative.  BIMSTEC, grouping the nations in the Bay of Bengal region, is popularly favoured as the viable option. Two decades since its inception, however, BIMSTEC’s successes have been minimal. How workable is BIMSTEC as an option for pursuing regional cooperation in South Asia? Are SAARC and BIMSTEC competitors or do they complement each

Sanctions as a Weapon of War: The European Experience
Dec 09, 2022

Sanctions as a Weapon of War: The European Experience

The Russia-Ukraine war has raged for over 10 months now, and the expectation of an easy Russian walkover over Ukraine has been belied. The war is witnessing strong and determined resistance from the Ukrainian forces, with the support of Western countries through arms and other forms of aid, and sanctions against Russia. This report explores how sanctions are used in modern diplomacy and warfare, and their impact on the Ukraine war and the global

Sanctions only delay nuclear Iran
Mar 04, 2013

Sanctions only delay nuclear Iran

To understand the different aspects of the Iranian nuclear programme and its impact on the region, especially India, Observer Research Foundation, in collaboration with the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), organised a workshop on March 4, 2013.

SCO की संभावित आतंकवाद सूची की भावी डगर कठिन
Sep 26, 2022

SCO की संभावित आतंकवाद सूची की भावी डगर कठिन

SCO को आतंकवाद के खिलाफ किसी भी संभावित सूची को तैयार करने क

SCO शिखर सम्मेलन में मिलेंगे मोदी, जिनपिंग और शाहबाज़, क्या है इसके मायने?
Sep 13, 2022

SCO शिखर सम्मेलन में मिलेंगे मोदी, जिनपिंग और शाहबाज़, क्या है इसके मायने?

SCO सम्मेलन में पीएम मोदी जिनपिंग-शाहबाज ऐसे समय एक मंच साझा कर रहे हैं जब दोनों देशों के साथ भारत के बेहतर संबंध नहीं है. सीमा विवाद को लेकर चीन के साथ संबंध तनाव है वहीं आतंकव�

SCO-RATS शिखर सम्मेलन: भारत की चिंताओं के निपटारे की आधी-अधूरी क़वायद
Jun 03, 2022

SCO-RATS शिखर सम्मेलन: भारत की चिंताओं के निपटारे की आधी-अधूरी क़वायद

SCO के सदस्य देशों को अपनी नाइत्तेफ़ाक़ियों और मतभेदों को �

Scraping the bottom of the barrel: Budgets, organisation and leadership in the Indian defence system
Aug 22, 2018

Scraping the bottom of the barrel: Budgets, organisation and leadership in the Indian defence system

A recent report of the 2017-2018 Parliamentary Standing Committee on Defence (PSCOD) has revealed that India’s defence services are facing a severe resource crunch. Given the enormous amount of money that the country is already spending on defence, the chances are slim that the government will come up with the significantly higher amounts of funds needed for modernisation. Meanwhile, the armed forces are facing obsolescence in equipment. The wa

Scripting a Third Way: The Importance of EU-India Partnership
Aug 14, 2023

Scripting a Third Way: The Importance of EU-India Partnership

The European Union (EU) and India should be “natural allies”. Faced with an authoritarian advance on their borders and globally, “the world’s largest democracies” should be collaborating more closely than ever today. But the tango that the EU and India have been dancing is a rather clumsy one. This brief delves into the causes for the limitations of the partnership and identifies critical miscalculations that have been made on both side

Securing Afghanistan: Historic Sources of India’s Contemporary Challenge
Aug 11, 2023

Securing Afghanistan: Historic Sources of India’s Contemporary Challenge

This paper looks at debates from the days of the British Raj until now that have shaped India's strategic thought on Afghanistan. It highlights the impact of India's territorial construct on its strategic imagination and argues that India's Afghan policy is determined by its political geography. Afghanistan has proved to be a security lynchpin in South and A Central Asia over the last two decades. Home to a variety of militant networks with regi

Securing Two Oceans: Bolstering India-Australia Defence Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific
Jul 21, 2023

Securing Two Oceans: Bolstering India-Australia Defence Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific

Countries such as India and Australia are redefining their Indo-Pacific policies amidst the growing belligerence of China in the region. The two have a common interest in stability, while standing firmly against any militarisation. Their willingness to partner closely with like-minded countries in the Indo-Pacific lays the foundation for stronger defence and security cooperation between the two middle-power democracies and Indian Ocean li

Silenced histories, razed shrines: The difficult task of rediscovering India and Pakistan’s shared heritage
Aug 21, 2023

Silenced histories, razed shrines: The difficult task of rediscovering India and Pakistan’s shared heritage

The national identity of Pakistan is rooted in the ‘two-nation theory’—the very basis of the creation of the country—which says that the Hindus and Muslims of the subcontinent were two different nations and therefore, the Muslims were entitled to a separate homeland where Islam would be practiced as state religion. Does Pakistan’s quest for identity, however, mean neglecting the non-Islamic culture present in the country? This brief cal

Silent Game: China’s Engagement in Afghanistan
Aug 23, 2023

Silent Game: China’s Engagement in Afghanistan

China's engagement with Afghanistan has become crucial as the US gradually pulls out its troops from the country. It has increased its investment in infrastructure projects in Afghanistan to US$1 billion from negligible amounts within a period of one year. Though it is still to be seen whether China would assert itself after the withdrawal of coalition forces, one thing is certain: Beijing is well poised in the Afghan endgame.

Sino Techno-Nationalism Powers Through With ‘China Manufacturing 2025’
Jun 09, 2021

Sino Techno-Nationalism Powers Through With ‘China Manufacturing 2025’

Despite being the ‘factory of the world,’ many of China’s industrial sectors are energy-intensive and have low value-add. At the same time, global firms are increasingly moving towards sophisticated low-cost manufacturing techniques for higher productivity gains. As a result, the Chinese Communist Party is keen to upgrade the country’s industrial base to compete in the more advanced segments, such as information technology, through the �

Sino-Indian Border Deadlock: Time to rewrite India playbook
Aug 31, 2020

Sino-Indian Border Deadlock: Time to rewrite India playbook

India’s border dispute with China, which goes back to the 1950s, primarily owes to the absence of an internationally accepted boundary between them, and of an agreement on where runs the Line of Actual Control. The border, as a result, is patrolled and managed by the military forces of both sides. After initial efforts to resolve the dispute failed, the two sides signed a set of agreements aimed at stabilising the LAC and normalising their rela

Sino-Indian Border Infrastructure: Issues and Challenges
Jul 31, 2023

Sino-Indian Border Infrastructure: Issues and Challenges

This paper looks at the recent Chinese infrastructural developments along the Sino-Indian border, including building of highways, road links and oil pipelines that have improved the country's force deployment and sustenance capabilities. The paper also assesses India?s infrastructure initiatives on the border front and argues that they are inadequate, especially in light of the Chinese developments.

Small Satellites for India’s Security: A Techno-Entrepreneurial View
Jan 25, 2016

Small Satellites for India’s Security: A Techno-Entrepreneurial View

The past decade has witnessed the proliferation of small satellite technology in various domains including the military, academe and commerce. is paper explores the idea of utilising small satellites technology (of the order weighing less than 150kg) for specic aspects of India's space security interests. It will describe some of the programmes and missions of global leaders in space security, and examine specic applications of small satellite te

Solving India’s Nuclear Liability Conundrum
Jan 22, 2015

Solving India’s Nuclear Liability Conundrum

This Paper offers a broad and objective analysis on the controversial issue of 'uclear liability', India's concerns and provides a recommendation for a coherent and comprehensive approach to resolve this conundrum.

Somalian Piracy: An Alternative Perspective
Nov 10, 2010

Somalian Piracy: An Alternative Perspective

The tendency of nation States to attempt solving the problem of modern piracy exclusively through the employment of their naval and military might is a flawed effort and has, more often than not, proved unsuccessful. At best, it has resulted in a temporary suppression of the problem that has inevitably re-manifested itself at a later stage.

South Africa, the Indian Ocean and the IBSA-BRICS equation Reflections on Geopolitical and Strategic Dimension
Dec 25, 2011

South Africa, the Indian Ocean and the IBSA-BRICS equation Reflections on Geopolitical and Strategic Dimension

This Paper analyses South Africa's position as a member of both BRICS and IBSA, especially the broader strategic implications arising out of its membership of the two organisations.

South Korea: सेना में अनिवार्य भर्ती के रास्ते पर क़दम बढ़ाता दक्षिण कोरिया का BTS बैंड
Jul 21, 2023

South Korea: सेना में अनिवार्य भर्ती के रास्ते पर क़दम बढ़ाता दक्षिण कोरिया का BTS बैंड

फ़ौज में अपनी सेवा शुरू करने के BTS के ऐलान से दक्षिण कोरिया

Sovereignty Vs. Sovereign Rights: De-escalating Tensions in the South China Sea
Aug 14, 2023

Sovereignty Vs. Sovereign Rights: De-escalating Tensions in the South China Sea

Competing maritime territorial claims in the South China Sea resulting in frequent provocations and standoffs are well-documented. China’s increasingly assertive stance over its claims has led to increased militarisation of the region, making it a potential flashpoint. To better understand the complex SCS question vis-a-vis the extent of, and jurisdiction over this maritime space, this brief explores the distinction between the principl

Sri Lanka Crisis: अंतरराष्ट्रीय मुद्रा कोष (IMF) के साथ श्रीलंका के बनते-बिगड़ते रिश्ते!
Jul 31, 2023

Sri Lanka Crisis: अंतरराष्ट्रीय मुद्रा कोष (IMF) के साथ श्रीलंका के बनते-बिगड़ते रिश्ते!

ज्यों ज्यों श्रीलंका आर्थिक निराशा में डूबता जा रहा हैं, �

Sri Lanka: चीन के नज़रिये से श्रीलंका के कर्ज़ संकट की व्याख्या!
Jul 30, 2023

Sri Lanka: चीन के नज़रिये से श्रीलंका के कर्ज़ संकट की व्याख्या!

जैसे ही कर्ज़ जाल सबंधी आलोचना तेज़ होती जा रही है, चीनी प�

Strategic implications of Indo-Japanese cooperation on the ‘Asia and Africa growth corridor’
Aug 17, 2023

Strategic implications of Indo-Japanese cooperation on the ‘Asia and Africa growth corridor’

India and Japan’s economic vision is that of an ‘Asia and Africa Growth Corridor’ (AAGC) empowering states to peacefully counter and constrain Chinese revisionism. However, a stable AAGC will depend on enhanced security cooperation and the current rules-based order upheld by the US-led security framework. While current Indian and Japanese engagements in Asia are conducive to successful cooperation, weaker economic and military engagements w

Subregional Security Cooperation: An Exploratory Study of India’s Approach
Sep 14, 2020

Subregional Security Cooperation: An Exploratory Study of India’s Approach

Subregional economic cooperation has become a prioritised agenda in India’s neighbourhood policy. Policymakers and scholars increasingly conceptualise subregions in the neighbourhood to promote economic and connectivity cooperation. However, the subregional notion is rarely discussed in the context of security cooperation. This raises an important question regarding the subregional approach, or its lack thereof, in building security cooperation

Surgical Strikes and Deterrence-Stability in South Asia
Jun 24, 2017

Surgical Strikes and Deterrence-Stability in South Asia

Indian announcement of having conducted surgical strikes across the de-facto border with Pakistan in Jammu and Kashmir has major implications for deterrence-stability in South Asia. New Delhi has sought to devise a military strategy to respond to Pakistan’s sub-conventional war that does not lead to escalation of conflict to nuclear levels and collapse of nuclear deterrence. This paper analyses India’s surgical strikes of September 2016, thei

Taliban 2.0: Stronger or Moving Towards Fragmentation?
Sep 07, 2023

Taliban 2.0: Stronger or Moving Towards Fragmentation?

Two years after the Taliban returned to power in Afghanistan, the debates around whether the group remains intact or has become divided have surfaced once again. In the immediate aftermath of the fall of Kabul in August 2021, there were speculations that the country could be going into a civil war or the Taliban would eventually come to a split. This brief analyses the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan’s resurgence in Kabul and weighs in o

Taliban’s Afghanistan: An Emerging Security Challenge for India and Central Asia
Aug 16, 2023

Taliban’s Afghanistan: An Emerging Security Challenge for India and Central Asia

Relations between India and the Central Asia Republics (CARs) have matured over the past three decades, primarily in the areas of military technology, defence, counterterrorism, and economy, and culture. Following the Taliban’s return to power in Afghanistan and the resultant security, geostrategic, and geoeconomic challenges, India and the CARs must aim to strengthen their ties. This brief assesses the evolving situation in Afghanistan

Territorial Disputes: Can Japan and Russia Reconcile?
Sep 14, 2023

Territorial Disputes: Can Japan and Russia Reconcile?

The Ukraine crisis may have effectively ended the rapprochement between the USand Russia, and in turn affecting relations such as those of Japan and Russia. Prior to this crisis,and the subsequent Western sanctions on Russia, Tokyo and Moscow had been reaching out toeach other, and hope flickered for a resolution to the territorial dispute over the NorthernTerritories or Southern Kurils. This paper argues that with nationalist governments in powe