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India’s Agnipath Scheme and the Impact on Ties with Nepal
Aug 17, 2023

India’s Agnipath Scheme and the Impact on Ties with Nepal

The Gorkhas, a Nepali military community, have long been recruited by the Indian Army into its Gorkha regiments. Gorkha youth are keen to join the Indian Army since its perks and payments are superior to those of the Nepali Army. However, India's new short-term military enlistment scheme, Agnipath, could alter this association. This brief discusses the impacts of the Agnipath scheme on military labour migration from Nepal to India, and on

India’s Coal Supply Security: Pushing Imports at the Expense of Domestic Reforms?
May 11, 2023

India’s Coal Supply Security: Pushing Imports at the Expense of Domestic Reforms?

Coal India Ltd. (CIL) has not been able to supply the committed quantity of coal to the powerproducers, forcing them to source coal from other countries. Apart from this, many coal blockswhich should have been in operation by now are yet to come on-stream.

India’s developing economic ties with the Indo-Pacific
Apr 26, 2021

India’s developing economic ties with the Indo-Pacific

India’s concerted actions in the Indo-Pacific region will determine its evolution as a key player.

India’s G20 Presidency: कोरोना महामारी के बाद की दुनिया को आकार देना
Jul 27, 2023

India’s G20 Presidency: कोरोना महामारी के बाद की दुनिया को आकार देना

जब समूची दुनिया में भू-राजनीतिक अस्थिरता का दौर है ऐसे वक�

India’s Innovation Ecosystem: Mapping the Trends
Feb 08, 2021

India’s Innovation Ecosystem: Mapping the Trends

The integration of Science, Technology and Innovation goals into national policies helps achieve sustained economic and social development. This brief examines the key parameters that govern the global and Indian innovation ecosystems: research investment, education policy, researcher density, publication output, number of patents registered, and the startup environment. It finds that certain elements are crucial in developing a robust strategic

India’s Lines of Credit, Development Cooperation, and G20 Presidency: A Primer
Aug 17, 2023

India’s Lines of Credit, Development Cooperation, and G20 Presidency: A Primer

Lines of Credit (LOCs) are a widely used instrument in development cooperation, including for India. The projects funded by India’s LOCs attempt to achieve a trinity of objectives: economic benefits; effective project management and completion; and nurturing and enhancing diplomatic relationship and strategic interests with the partner countries. This brief explains how India’s LOCs function, and contextualises the performance of the

India’s Maritime Agenda Pivots to Western Indian Ocean
Aug 16, 2023

India’s Maritime Agenda Pivots to Western Indian Ocean

The Western Indian Ocean Region (WIOR) is linked to India in several ways, yet it remains conspicuous in its absence from India’s foreign policy discourse. This lack of attention is now beginning to reverse as external players stake their geopolitical claims in the region. India has responded by reorienting its own nautical outlook towards WIOR and building friendly relationships with African countries that straddle the region. This bri

India’s Moment in the Geopolitics of Oil
Apr 04, 2023

India’s Moment in the Geopolitics of Oil

Global energy markets have battled continuous uncertainty over the past three years, disrupted first by the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021, and by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in 2022. India has been adept at navigating both these disruptions, using economic diplomacy to position itself favourably in the geopolitics of oil. New Delhi’s delicate balancing of its political relationship with both Washington DC and Moscow has been accompanied

India’s Participation in the NSG: Capturing the Debate
Apr 27, 2015

India’s Participation in the NSG: Capturing the Debate

The paper examines how the Nuclear Suppliers Group has evolved over the years and the role the Group defines for itself. It also attempts to provide a more nuanced understanding of the consequences of India's NSG-membership.

India’s Russia Defense Gambit
Jan 11, 2024

India’s Russia Defense Gambit

The uncertainty and possible further disruptions in the defense supply chain out of Russia could accelerate India’s diversification and indigenization efforts.

India’s Shifting Governance Structure:From Charter of Promises to Service Guarantee
Jul 25, 2012

India’s Shifting Governance Structure:From Charter of Promises to Service Guarantee

Once synonymous with inefficiency and slothfulness, India's public service delivery system is finally being overhauled and put on the path of reforms. Ironically, these reforms are being spearheaded by a set of state governments. This paper attempts to capture the key trends of this impressive development which has far reaching consequences for democracy and governance in the country.

India’s Small Satellite Mission: Time for the Next Leap Forward
Apr 04, 2015

India’s Small Satellite Mission: Time for the Next Leap Forward

The paper analyses small satellite activities within India in various institutions and identifies the opportunities as well as the gaps.

India’s Stakes in Taliban-Ruled Afghanistan
Aug 01, 2023

India’s Stakes in Taliban-Ruled Afghanistan

The Taliban’s return to power in Afghanistan in August 2021 changed the strategic dynamics in the region. For India, the new regime and its attendant risks—especially the threat of terrorism—quickly put it in an unenviable position. This brief assesses India’s policy towards Afghanistan since August 2021. It will cover how India has articulated its Afghan policy, domestically and in multilateral organisations, and its incremental

Indo US Differences over F-16: एफ-16 पर बाइडेन ने पलटा ट्रंप का फैसला; क्‍या है भारत की बड़ी चिंता?
Sep 14, 2022

Indo US Differences over F-16: एफ-16 पर बाइडेन ने पलटा ट्रंप का फैसला; क्‍या है भारत की बड़ी चिंता?

अमेरिका ने पाकिस्तान को एफ-16 युद्धक विमान को अपग्रेड करने का फैसला भारत के खिलाफ है. ऐसे में यह सवाल भी उठता है कि बाइडेन प्रशासन का भारत के प्रति क्‍या नजरिया है. क्‍या बाइडे

Informal modern education the only hope in present Kashmir crises
Sep 21, 2019

Informal modern education the only hope in present Kashmir crises

As Kashmiris stare at an uncertain future, mohalla schools have kept the lamp of education burning for the Valley’s children.

Integration of Maoist Combatants in Nepal: The Challenges Ahead
Apr 17, 2023

Integration of Maoist Combatants in Nepal: The Challenges Ahead

The integration and rehabilitation of former Maoist combatants remains one of the most critical issues in Nepal's peace process. Although there have been a series of agreements since 2006 to formalise the integration of Maoist combatants, the political parties have failed to agree on the number, modality, age and qualification of the combatants.

International  Jihadi Terrorism: An Indian Perspective
May 21, 2005

International Jihadi Terrorism: An Indian Perspective

No Indian terrorist group is co-operating with the international jihadi terrorist movement headed by Al Qaeda.However, certain Pakistani jihadi terrorist organisations, which are members of bin Laden's International Islamic Front (IIF), are being used by Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) for organising terrorist attacks in Jammu & Kashmir (J) and other parts of India.

International Code of Conduct for Outer Space: Major Asian perspectives
Oct 27, 2014

International Code of Conduct for Outer Space: Major Asian perspectives

While the EU has been engaged in bilateral, regional and global efforts to enlist greater support for its Code on ICoC, one cannot say with certainty that the result has been totally satisfactory. There are still many countries that see the EU-proposed measure as problematic owing to a number of issues.

Introduction The framers of the Constitution of India, which came into force in 1950, put faith in the State to provide  ...
Aug 16, 2023

Introduction The framers of the Constitution of India, which came into force in 1950, put faith in the State to provide free and compulsory education for all children up to 14 years of age. Article 45

Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) in India is enshrined in the Constitution and mandated under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act 2009. Yet, its implementation remains tentative for many reasons, primary of which is the absence of a clear government guideline regarding which Ministry is tasked with policymaking and implementation. This brief attempts to offer an answer for the government. It examines

IPEF में भारत का किरदार: देश के मुनाफ़े का लेखाजोखा
Jun 18, 2022

IPEF में भारत का किरदार: देश के मुनाफ़े का लेखाजोखा

IPEF की रूपरेखा में ख़ामियों के बावजूद ये ढांचा भारत को दक्ष

Iran at the Crossroads
Oct 28, 2004

Iran at the Crossroads

Iranians are political creatures, love to politic, enjoy its uncertainties, and delight in manipulating it. These traits are in evidence as the stage is being set for a presidential election in May 2005 when Mohammad Khatami's second term of office comes to an end. The Iranian Constitution prohibits more than two successive terms.

Iraq Policy of the United States: Dimensions of Failure
Jan 25, 2007

Iraq Policy of the United States: Dimensions of Failure

The invasion and occupation of Iraq in March-April 2003 by a 'Coalition of the Willing' led by the United States was the second part of the response to the outrage conducted by a non-state actor on September 11, 2001. This was perceived in Washington as a gift from history, an opportunity to reshape a region of crucial relevance to the politics and economics of the western world. The impulse for drastic action was greater because notwithstanding

IS Khorasan, the US–Taliban Deal, and the Future of South Asian Security
Dec 15, 2020

IS Khorasan, the US–Taliban Deal, and the Future of South Asian Security

The Taliban today undoubtedly has a stronger hold over how the US militarily plans to withdraw from the conflict in Afghanistan. This raises questions about the continuing challenges to security in South Asia—in particular, the influence of IS Khorasan (IS-K), the group’s Afghanistan avatar, and its rise both as an ISIS-aligned entity and a big-tent brand for various jihadist groups in the country. As the ‘Khorasan’ project of ISIS gets m

Is Syria, the next Libya?
Aug 29, 2013

Is Syria, the next Libya?

Who used chemical weapons against whom? Is Assad regime guilty? We may never know. What is certain is that one more country in the Middle East will be reduced to an ungovernable territory. Welcome home Al-Qaeda!

Is the Afghan peace process going anywhere?
May 25, 2019

Is the Afghan peace process going anywhere?

The fact the Afghan government is not in the negotiating room has created a circle of uncertainty among the political elite.

Is the “defence-alone” strategy sufficient to create secure cyberspace?
Nov 19, 2016

Is the “defence-alone” strategy sufficient to create secure cyberspace?

Poor prosecution and conviction rates fail to act as deterrents. Credible deterrence needs to be created with successful prosecutions in cyberspace.

Islamic State in Afghanistan: Reading between the blurred lines
Mar 17, 2020

Islamic State in Afghanistan: Reading between the blurred lines

There are certain discrepancies that are openly visible between the threat perceptions of ISIS, the central group, and its supposed wilayat in Afghani

J&K: An election of competing nationalisms
Dec 18, 2014

J&K: An election of competing nationalisms

Poll analysts in J&K seem certain that the BJP will sweep Jammu and the PDP will emerge as the largest party in Kashmir. But this remains to be seen. Without a clear majority, their collaboration will be interesting to watch; both represent competing nationalisms.

Jaishankar’s Moscow visit: जयशंकर की रूस यात्रा पर क्‍यों है US की नज़र, क्‍या जंग रोकने की होगी पहल!
Jul 19, 2023

Jaishankar’s Moscow visit: जयशंकर की रूस यात्रा पर क्‍यों है US की नज़र, क्‍या जंग रोकने की होगी पहल!

S Jaishankar visit to Moscow ऐसे में सवाल उठता है कि क्‍या वाकई भारतीय विदेश मंत्री की इस यात्रा में जंग खत्‍म करने की पहल हो सकती है. अमेरिका व पश्चिमी देश भारत से इस तरह की उम्‍मीद क्‍यों कर �

Japan: Deconstructing the denuclearisation policy
Aug 12, 2011

Japan: Deconstructing the denuclearisation policy

The recent decision by the government of Naoto Kan to denuclearise Japan by 2050, regardless of its naivete, has certain traits that could help in overhauling the political economy of Japan's energy sector.

Japan’s Security Policy in the Asia-Pacific during the post-Cold War Period
Oct 09, 2010

Japan’s Security Policy in the Asia-Pacific during the post-Cold War Period

Despite domestic political changes, the alliance with the US continues to be the cornerstone of Japan's security policy in the Asia-Pacific region. Although Japan has taken some siginificant steps in the direction of normal statehood, the domestic constituency in favour of full strategic autonomy is still very weak. Japan's dilemma between its growing security concerns and the limitations laid by its Constitution will continue to be a major chall

KFON : केरळची इंटरनेट जोडणी योजना
Jun 30, 2023

KFON : केरळची इंटरनेट जोडणी योजना

डिजिटल तंत्रज्ञानामुळे असमानता कशी वाढते हे कोरोनाच्या महासाथीच्या काळात आपल्या लक्षात आले. पण ही असमानता टाळता येते हे KFON हा प्रकल्प सिद्ध करून दाखवतो.   

Knowing India's nuclear credentials
Jul 24, 2014

Knowing India's nuclear credentials

Through concerted attack on India from the usual suspects in recent days, India is first being made the whipping boy for the failure of the American non-proliferation lobby in their own country. Then it has to accept blame for the complex relations the U.S. shares with Pakistan and China that is driving these Asian allies to increase their arsenals. Can we get real, please?

Laboratory Biosafety in India: In Search of a Sound Regulatory Framework
Apr 09, 2024

Laboratory Biosafety in India: In Search of a Sound Regulatory Framework

In the biomedical field, laboratories must ensure biosafety while managing pathogens and microorganisms in order to protect personnel and the broader community against potential leaks and lab-acquired infections. Global standards provide a roadmap for the biosafety of laboratories, underscoring the importance of their design and equipment, personnel training, waste management, and communication in preventing potential biohazards from breaching co

Lack of clarity on legal nature of Paris deal a concern for India
May 21, 2015

Lack of clarity on legal nature of Paris deal a concern for India

Lack of clarity on the legal nature of the Paris deal and the INDCs has been a cause of concern for India. There has been a proposal for a kind of "hybrid agreement", which suggests that Paris deal will not actually be legally binding but have certain legally binding elements.

Lebanon’s economy is in free fall 
May 26, 2020

Lebanon’s economy is in free fall 

While the coronavirus lockdown has certainly exacerbated the economic collapse and the protests that engulfed the country in October caused panic —

Legislating patriotism in China
Aug 16, 2023

Legislating patriotism in China

China introduces a Patriotic Education Bill in an effort to shore widespread support for its policies in uncertain times, from both inside and outside

Lessons from transboundary waste trade: Why India should focus on the judicious use of its own waste
Aug 23, 2018

Lessons from transboundary waste trade: Why India should focus on the judicious use of its own waste

This paper examines two types of waste on which India can explore transboundary waste-trade opportunities and challenges: farm-produce waste and municipal solid waste. Using lessons learnt from trade between other countries, the paper argues that while India can augment its economy through increased waste exports or imports, certain conditions must be met for India to benefit from sustained international waste trade practices. The paper recommend

Lethal Autonomous Dragon: China’s approach to artificial intelligence weapons
Nov 15, 2017

Lethal Autonomous Dragon: China’s approach to artificial intelligence weapons

China does not want to be at the receiving end of a technological asymmetry in what may very well be the conventional approach to war in the future. I

Lula 3.0- लुला की तीसरी पारी: विश्व मंच पर ब्राज़ील की वापसी
Jul 26, 2023

Lula 3.0- लुला की तीसरी पारी: विश्व मंच पर ब्राज़ील की वापसी

तीसरी बार राष्ट्रपति बनने के बाद लुला (Lula) ने ब्राज़ील की घ�

Mainstreaming Gender in India-Africa Partnership for Energy Access
Jul 05, 2021

Mainstreaming Gender in India-Africa Partnership for Energy Access

The seventh of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aims to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by 2030. This challenge is acute in the African continent, home to large populations without access to electricity and clean cooking fuel. This brief explores the scope for cooperation between India and Africa in not only achieving SDG 7, but while doing so, also considering the targets set by SDG 5 to

Making friends with the middle
Aug 25, 2014

Making friends with the middle

Building a set of flexible Asian coalitions that do not include America or China should become a critical element of India's strategy of coping with the historic power shift in Asia and the uncertain evolution of US-China relations.

Maldives: मालदीव के लिए क़र्ज़ का बोझ उठा पाना मुश्किल हो सकता है!
Jul 27, 2023

Maldives: मालदीव के लिए क़र्ज़ का बोझ उठा पाना मुश्किल हो सकता है!

विश्व अर्थव्यवस्था की विकास दर गिरने के चलते मालदीव की स�

Malnutrition problem in the Northeast: पूर्वोत्तर में कुपोषण की समस्या
Jul 26, 2023

Malnutrition problem in the Northeast: पूर्वोत्तर में कुपोषण की समस्या

देशभर में बदलाव की सफल कहानियां इंगित करती हैं कि लड़किय�

Managing Expectations: Explainable A.I. and its Military Implications
Aug 16, 2023

Managing Expectations: Explainable A.I. and its Military Implications

The rapid uptake of artificial intelligence (AI) in the military in the past couple decades has been accompanied by a slow but gradual build-up in attempts to understand how these AI systems work to achieve better results in military operations. The idea behind what is called ‘eXplainable AI’ (XAI), and the technologies driving it, are a manifestation of this trend. The question, however, is if XAI in its current form is the solution

Manifestos as a Tool for Accountability: A Content Analysis of the 2004-2019 UPA and NDA Poll Manifestos
Aug 14, 2023

Manifestos as a Tool for Accountability: A Content Analysis of the 2004-2019 UPA and NDA Poll Manifestos

This brief analyses the manifestos of the Indian National Congress and Bharatiya Janata Party in the past four Lok Sabha elections. It introduces the concept of “falsifiability” to evaluate whether promises made in manifestos can be verified, to begin with; it then outlines the poll promises that are falsifiable across various sectors. The authors examine whether or not the promises were fulfilled, and if not, if they were carried aga

Mann Ki Baat: Innovation in Indian policymaking
Sep 19, 2017

Mann Ki Baat: Innovation in Indian policymaking

Governments are architects designing our range of choices and social environment. Using formal behavioural science towards design, they can craft smar

Mapping Skills: A Roadmap for India and the UAE
Jul 06, 2020

Mapping Skills: A Roadmap for India and the UAE

The presence of almost nine million Indian nationals in the Gulf region makes India a key source of human capital for the six GCC nations. The majority of these Indians are blue-collar workers engaged in low-paying jobs. As countries like the United Arab Emirates (UAE) move up the technology ladder, they are increasingly seeking workers with specific, certified skills. This report outlines a pilot project for the mapping, harmonisation and accred

Maritime Security and Development in the South-West Indian Ocean Region: Harnessing India’s Engagement with Small Island Developing States
Jul 21, 2023

Maritime Security and Development in the South-West Indian Ocean Region: Harnessing India’s Engagement with Small Island Developing States

In recent years, the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO) region have emerged as vital security and developmental partners in the geopolitics of the Indian Ocean Region (IOR)—thereby gaining prominence in India’s foreign policy priorities. This paper examines India’s bilateral and multilateral engagement with the SIDS of the SWIO region, and argues that India should consider the concerns of the