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India, Japan, and the Dragon’s Fire: Making the Quad Work
Aug 14, 2023

India, Japan, and the Dragon’s Fire: Making the Quad Work

Since the 2000s, the security situation around Japan has changed as China has escalated its activities in the Indo-Pacific area. As such, the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) has an important role to play in the resolution of this issue. This brief seeks to understand the features of China's territorial expansion, how the Quad can respond to this situation, and what issues it should anticipate in the future.

India-ASEAN partnership at 25
Jul 04, 2017

India-ASEAN partnership at 25

India-ASEAN relations have traversed a long, dynamic path interspersed with multiple achievements to reach the year 2017, when the two are celebrating 25 years of their partnership. India and ASEAN uphold each other’s centrality in shaping the evolving regional architecture. In pursuit of this objective, India’s ‘Look East’ policy had morphed into ‘Act East’ by 2014. Common concerns and aspirations bind the ASEAN countries and India a

India-Bangladesh defence cooperation: Coming of age, at last?
Aug 21, 2023

India-Bangladesh defence cooperation: Coming of age, at last?

This brief analyses the efforts of India and Bangladesh to strengthen their defence cooperation, in the context of the series of agreements and Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed between the two countries during Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s visit to India in April 2017. Some quarters in both countries are sceptical about the agreements, citing the ineffectual Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Peace—often referred to as a ‘defenc

India-Bangladesh Relations: A Ten-point Agenda
Aug 23, 2023

India-Bangladesh Relations: A Ten-point Agenda

This Issue Brief seeks to highlight key issues which the Narendra Modi government should prioritise in its relations with Bangladesh. It also suggests some additional steps that can be taken to strengthen relations between the two countries.

India-Japan Partnership in Third Countries: A Study of Bangladesh and Myanmar
Apr 19, 2021

India-Japan Partnership in Third Countries: A Study of Bangladesh and Myanmar

As the Indo-Pacific region takes centrestage in international affairs, various stakeholder countries are engaging in different forms of economic and strategic cooperation. While such cooperation is implemented largely through bilateral or multilateral forums, certain countries are partnering to promote infrastructure connectivity in third countries across the region. This brief explores one such partnership that holds promise—that of Indi

India-Japan-Australia minilateral: The promise and perils of balancing locally
May 24, 2017

India-Japan-Australia minilateral: The promise and perils of balancing locally

This paper argues that even when the India-Japan-Australia minilateral is inspired by a need to ensure their interests against the current global power transition, it remains limited in its aim: to restrain China from achieving regional hegemony as it may threaten the liberal security order in the region. In the face of China’s rise and the US’ retrenchment, Asia’s regional powers are hedging their bets on a regional security order that is

India-Pakistan Relations after Mumbai Attacks
Sep 23, 2009

India-Pakistan Relations after Mumbai Attacks

The Paper makes a critical appraisal of India-Pakistan relations and explores their future trajectory in the aftermath of the Mumbai terrorist attack of November 2008. The rising tide of terrorism within Pakistan after 9/11 and the importance of South Asia to the United States made Pakistan selectively withdraw support to terrorist groups. This, in turn, helped India's efforts to initiate the Composite Dialogue in 2004.

India-Russia economic and energy cooperation: The way ahead
Jun 07, 2017

India-Russia economic and energy cooperation: The way ahead

Economic ties were the cornerstone of Indo-Soviet relations. Even the 1971 Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, which was essentially of a political-security nature, stressed upon “economic, scientific and technological cooperation”.[1] Although the India-Russia ties in general survived the upheavals of the early 1990s, economic relations began to cool in the post-Soviet period. Despite many ambitious targets set during various

India-Russia military-technical cooperation: Beyond commercial relations
Jun 22, 2017

India-Russia military-technical cooperation: Beyond commercial relations

The India-Russia military technical relationship has withstood the test of time. Despite strains since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the relationship has remained highly critical both in terms of the level of trust between the two states and the imperatives of sustaining a military-technical relationship to counter the growth of Chinese power. A more synergistic military-technical is possible, and Moscow and New Delhi must explore ways to con

India: Energy geo-politics
Oct 16, 2018

India: Energy geo-politics

In the last four decades, India’s geo-political identity has evolved from being the leader of the non-aligned movement - a representative of the developing poor nations of the world to becoming a member of the G-20, the world’s leading industrialized and emerging economies. The change has also been evident on its evolving position on climate change as it became a signatory to The Paris accord. However, the paper argues that key tenets of self

Indian Defence Procurement: Righting the Ship
Feb 10, 2021

Indian Defence Procurement: Righting the Ship

This brief examines India’s defence procurement record for fundamental platforms, weapons, and systems, as well as planned acquisitions and projects under development. The new Defence Acquisition Procedure (DAP 2020) assumes greater salience not only against India’s chequered acquisition history, but also the increasingly constrained resource environment and deteriorating regional security scenario. The brief offers a set of broad recommendat

India–UAE CEPA: कैसे अपनाया जाए एक समग्र दृष्टिकोण!
Jul 31, 2023

India–UAE CEPA: कैसे अपनाया जाए एक समग्र दृष्टिकोण!

यूएई और भारत सीईपीए मंच का अधिकतम लाभ उठाने के लिए, भारत औ�

India–UAE CEPA: भारत के मुक्त व्यापार समझौतों का भविष्य क्या होगा?
Jul 31, 2023

India–UAE CEPA: भारत के मुक्त व्यापार समझौतों का भविष्य क्या होगा?

भारत और संयुक्त अरब अमीरात का व्यापक आर्थिक भागीदारी समझ

India’s Agnipath Scheme and the Impact on Ties with Nepal
Aug 17, 2023

India’s Agnipath Scheme and the Impact on Ties with Nepal

The Gorkhas, a Nepali military community, have long been recruited by the Indian Army into its Gorkha regiments. Gorkha youth are keen to join the Indian Army since its perks and payments are superior to those of the Nepali Army. However, India's new short-term military enlistment scheme, Agnipath, could alter this association. This brief discusses the impacts of the Agnipath scheme on military labour migration from Nepal to India, and on

India’s challenges in extraditing fugitives from foreign countries
Aug 21, 2023

India’s challenges in extraditing fugitives from foreign countries

With the advent of globalisation and increased interconnectivity, it has become less difficult for offenders in India to escape to foreign jurisdictions and avoid prosecution in the country. The importance of extraditing fugitives and bringing them before Indian courts cannot be stressed enough. Apart from providing timely justice and grievance redressal, it also serves as a deterrent against potential fugitives. However, India’s success rate i

India’s Coastal Security Challenges and Policy Recommendations
Jul 31, 2023

India’s Coastal Security Challenges and Policy Recommendations

The November 2008 terrorist attacks on Mumbai the commercial capital of an economically resurgent India?left a deep and indelible impact on the Indian security psyche. The attacks exposed the lackadaisical attitude of the Government, at both the Central and state level, towards coastal security and the sheer illpreparedness of the country to combat such terror threats from the seas.

India’s dilemma in Maldives
Feb 13, 2018

India’s dilemma in Maldives

Maldivian President Yameen Abdullah Gayoom’s rejection of the Supreme Court’s decision to release the jailed opposition leaders to ensure a free and fair presidential elections later this year has brought to head the country’s brewing estrangement with its traditional ally, India. India faces a dilemma: How must it deal with the situation in Maldives? This report examines India’s options in the context of China’s expanding power in the

India’s economic footprint in the developing world
Sep 13, 2023

India’s economic footprint in the developing world

The world is witnessing a paradigm shift: India is becoming a more active player not only in contributing goods, services and training, but also in shaping the global development agenda itself. This Brief is a map of India's growing economic footprint in the developing world.

India’s evolving views on responsibility to protect (R2P) and humanitarian interventions: The significance of legitimacy
Dec 24, 2017

India’s evolving views on responsibility to protect (R2P) and humanitarian interventions: The significance of legitimacy

The role of legitimacy in India’s approach to the doctrine of the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ (R2P) and Humanitarian Interventions (HIs) has not received as much attention as it is due. The following paper evaluates India’s evolving views on R2P and HIs through the prism of legitimacy. It also demonstrates why the outcome of an HI, whether through the medium of the R2P or otherwise, matters as much as motives. Most Indian debates about R2

India’s FTAs with East and SE Asia: Impact of India-Malaysia CECA on the Edible Oil Value Chain
Oct 06, 2015

India’s FTAs with East and SE Asia: Impact of India-Malaysia CECA on the Edible Oil Value Chain

is paper formulates an analytical framework to assess the impacts of India's Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) on commodity value chains. Existing academic literature have relied on examining Balance of Payments (BoP) to assess the impact of FTAs. is paper views such methodology as reductionist, and instead oers alternative lenses of the impacts on the commodity value chain. is paper brings into fold the concerns for the wellbeing of various stakehold

India’s Intelligence Agencies: In Need of Reform and Oversight
Jul 23, 2015

India’s Intelligence Agencies: In Need of Reform and Oversight

This report draws from the conference on the Future Challenges to India's Intelligence System organised by ORF in February 2015. What tasks face India's intelligence agencies in implementing reforms in order to address the more complex national security threats confronting the country today?

India’s Maritime Agenda Pivots to Western Indian Ocean
Aug 16, 2023

India’s Maritime Agenda Pivots to Western Indian Ocean

The Western Indian Ocean Region (WIOR) is linked to India in several ways, yet it remains conspicuous in its absence from India’s foreign policy discourse. This lack of attention is now beginning to reverse as external players stake their geopolitical claims in the region. India has responded by reorienting its own nautical outlook towards WIOR and building friendly relationships with African countries that straddle the region. This bri

India’s Nuclear Security Regime: Physical Protection and Crisis Management Measures
Jul 19, 2022

India’s Nuclear Security Regime: Physical Protection and Crisis Management Measures

The security of nuclear and radiological materials is a critical global issue due to the growing number of existing and emerging threats in the nuclear domain. Within the broad domain of nuclear security, several challenges and threats—such as the physical protection of nuclear materials, insider threat, transportation security, and cyber threats—have raised concerns among governments and the international community. This report focuses on th

India’s Participation in the NSG: Capturing the Debate
Apr 27, 2015

India’s Participation in the NSG: Capturing the Debate

The paper examines how the Nuclear Suppliers Group has evolved over the years and the role the Group defines for itself. It also attempts to provide a more nuanced understanding of the consequences of India's NSG-membership.

India’s pursuit of United Nations Security Council reforms
Dec 24, 2017

India’s pursuit of United Nations Security Council reforms

The United Nations Security Council has emerged as the key arena and barometer for evaluating the promise and progress of accommodating new, rising powers in the international system. The case of India provides one of the best examples of a rising power coming to terms with its increased power, role and expectations of itself and of other powers, great and small, in negotiating its place in the reformed Council as a permanent member. This paper b

India’s Small Satellite Mission: Time for the Next Leap Forward
Apr 04, 2015

India’s Small Satellite Mission: Time for the Next Leap Forward

The paper analyses small satellite activities within India in various institutions and identifies the opportunities as well as the gaps.

India’s Stakes in Taliban-Ruled Afghanistan
Aug 01, 2023

India’s Stakes in Taliban-Ruled Afghanistan

The Taliban’s return to power in Afghanistan in August 2021 changed the strategic dynamics in the region. For India, the new regime and its attendant risks—especially the threat of terrorism—quickly put it in an unenviable position. This brief assesses India’s policy towards Afghanistan since August 2021. It will cover how India has articulated its Afghan policy, domestically and in multilateral organisations, and its incremental

India’s Use of Force: The Missing Indirect Approach
Sep 14, 2023

India’s Use of Force: The Missing Indirect Approach

Why does India have so few available options to manage security threats? In crisis management, Indian policy-makers have faced all-or-nothing choices, either passively absorbing provocations, or overreacting with massive mobilisations and threats of general war. In wartime, with the notable exception of the 1971 war, India has generally fought to degrade enemy military capabilities rather than to achieve decisive operational effects. This paper a

India’s ‘Look Far East’: The Vladivostok moment in Indo-Russian relations
May 26, 2020

India’s ‘Look Far East’: The Vladivostok moment in Indo-Russian relations

This paper explains Russian co-option of India into the Eastern Economic Forum (EEF) at a high level of participation in September 2019 and the range of agreements involved. It argues that the co-option was the result of Russian President Vladimir Putin’s dissatisfaction with the economic outcomes so far for the Russian Far East of “northeast Asian regional cooperation.” Moscow related this behaviour to skewed priorities of East Asia’s �

Indo US Differences over F-16: एफ-16 पर बाइडेन ने पलटा ट्रंप का फैसला; क्‍या है भारत की बड़ी चिंता?
Sep 14, 2022

Indo US Differences over F-16: एफ-16 पर बाइडेन ने पलटा ट्रंप का फैसला; क्‍या है भारत की बड़ी चिंता?

अमेरिका ने पाकिस्तान को एफ-16 युद्धक विमान को अपग्रेड करने का फैसला भारत के खिलाफ है. ऐसे में यह सवाल भी उठता है कि बाइडेन प्रशासन का भारत के प्रति क्‍या नजरिया है. क्‍या बाइडे

Indo-Japanese Partnership: The Security Factor
May 28, 2009

Indo-Japanese Partnership: The Security Factor

There is a fundamental transformation in the Japanese assessment of India's role in the shaping of new Asian security architecture. There has been a perceptible change in the nature of the bilateral partnership since the turn of the century. Rather than being centred on economic interactions. Indo-Japanese ties today cover a far wider spectrum of subjects...

Intelligence Agencies in India: Need for a public interface
Aug 23, 2023

Intelligence Agencies in India: Need for a public interface

Today's intelligence agencies operate in highly complex environments. Cold War definitions and understanding of threats have long become redundant. Threats are multiple, layered, networked, diffused and transcend social and spatial boundaries.

Invest, Indebt, Incapacitate: Is China Replicating Its ‘Xinjiang Model’ In BRI Countries?
Aug 21, 2020

Invest, Indebt, Incapacitate: Is China Replicating Its ‘Xinjiang Model’ In BRI Countries?

China has been aggressively promoting its Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) through massive investments in participating countries, as a means to further its strategic, economic and political goals. Such a strategy bears striking similarities to its policies in the Xinjiang province. This paper attempts a comparative study between Xinjiang and BRI countries in South and Central Asia to highlight the issues these states will likely face in the coming

IPEF में भारत का किरदार: देश के मुनाफ़े का लेखाजोखा
Jun 18, 2022

IPEF में भारत का किरदार: देश के मुनाफ़े का लेखाजोखा

IPEF की रूपरेखा में ख़ामियों के बावजूद ये ढांचा भारत को दक्ष

Iraq Policy of the United States: Dimensions of Failure
Jan 25, 2007

Iraq Policy of the United States: Dimensions of Failure

The invasion and occupation of Iraq in March-April 2003 by a 'Coalition of the Willing' led by the United States was the second part of the response to the outrage conducted by a non-state actor on September 11, 2001. This was perceived in Washington as a gift from history, an opportunity to reshape a region of crucial relevance to the politics and economics of the western world. The impulse for drastic action was greater because notwithstanding

IS Khorasan, the US–Taliban Deal, and the Future of South Asian Security
Dec 15, 2020

IS Khorasan, the US–Taliban Deal, and the Future of South Asian Security

The Taliban today undoubtedly has a stronger hold over how the US militarily plans to withdraw from the conflict in Afghanistan. This raises questions about the continuing challenges to security in South Asia—in particular, the influence of IS Khorasan (IS-K), the group’s Afghanistan avatar, and its rise both as an ISIS-aligned entity and a big-tent brand for various jihadist groups in the country. As the ‘Khorasan’ project of ISIS gets m

Islamisation in Pakistan: A Case Study of Punjab
Jul 28, 2023

Islamisation in Pakistan: A Case Study of Punjab

Islam had reached Punjab along with the invasion of Muhammad Bin Qasim in the 8th Century. It spread in the province through the efforts of an array of Sufi saints who arrived in the province in the centuries that followed. Naturally, that meant that Islam in Punjab was deeply influenced by Sufi traditions. Today, both sides of the divided province are dotted with Sufi shrines or dargahs. The Sufi saints of Punjab have been venerated through the

Italy and the EU: Brussels must start thinking outside the box
Jun 06, 2018

Italy and the EU: Brussels must start thinking outside the box

What the relations will be between the EU and one of its founding members will unravel in the coming days. It is high time that Brussels starts thinki

Jaishankar in Australia: भारत के लिए क्‍यों खास है ऑस्ट्रेलिया; और क्या है जयशंकर की कैनबरा यात्रा के मायने?
Oct 11, 2022

Jaishankar in Australia: भारत के लिए क्‍यों खास है ऑस्ट्रेलिया; और क्या है जयशंकर की कैनबरा यात्रा के मायने?

भारत-ऑस्ट्रेलिया के बीच प्रगाढ़ द्विपक्षीय संबंध है. हाल के वर्षों में खासकर क्वॉड के गठन के बाद दोनों देशों के संबंधों में बड़ा बदलाव आया है. क्वॉड के गठन के बाद भारत और ऑस्

Jammu and Kashmir: On the Cusp of Change, But Challenges Remain
Jun 17, 2022

Jammu and Kashmir: On the Cusp of Change, But Challenges Remain

The recent killings of minorities, migrant workers, and local police officers in the Kashmir Valley have led to an impression that the security situation in Jammu and Kashmir is once again becoming uncontrollable. On ground, however, the situation is said to be firmly under the control of the Indian State. This does not mean that terrorism has been eliminated; small terrorist groups continue to operate and attack soft targets, heightening the sen

Japan’s Security Policy in the Asia-Pacific during the post-Cold War Period
Oct 09, 2010

Japan’s Security Policy in the Asia-Pacific during the post-Cold War Period

Despite domestic political changes, the alliance with the US continues to be the cornerstone of Japan's security policy in the Asia-Pacific region. Although Japan has taken some siginificant steps in the direction of normal statehood, the domestic constituency in favour of full strategic autonomy is still very weak. Japan's dilemma between its growing security concerns and the limitations laid by its Constitution will continue to be a major chall

Japan’s Stakes in the Afghanistan Crisis
Feb 08, 2022

Japan’s Stakes in the Afghanistan Crisis

The Taliban takeover of Afghanistan in August 2021, just after the withdrawal of US-led troops, will have ramifications in Japan’s activities in the region. Since 2001, Japan has provided 759 billion yen (USD6.9 billion) to reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan. This, despite the fact that Japan does not share geographical proximity with Afghanistan and therefore has no direct strategic interests in the country. To be sure, Japan’s partners s

Lebanon: Caught in the Regional Crossfire
Aug 23, 2023

Lebanon: Caught in the Regional Crossfire

Lebanon, the smallest nation in continental Asia, is also one of the most populous. A relatively stable, secure and democratic state, its geographical location and the growing regional crisis are leading to pressing internal and external threats that Beirut must face. This issue brief examines these contemporary threats to Lebanese security: the Syrian Civil War, the rise of the Islamic State, domestic terrorism and sectarianism, and the nation's

Leveraging the Global Macroeconomic Environment for Recovery and Growth: Opportunities for G20 Under India’s Presidency
Aug 04, 2022

Leveraging the Global Macroeconomic Environment for Recovery and Growth: Opportunities for G20 Under India’s Presidency

The global macroeconomy has undergone unprecedented change in recent years, particularly because of the COVID-19 pandemic. While the G20 had an effective coordinating role in steering the global economy through the 2008 global financial crisis, its role in engineering an inclusive and sustainable recovery from the pandemic has been more mixed. Incomes in the advanced G20 economies are on track to return to pre-pandemic levels by end-2022 but have