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Decoding Rural Revitalisation, Xi Jinping’s New Priority
Aug 16, 2023

Decoding Rural Revitalisation, Xi Jinping’s New Priority

As the world grapples with uncertainty in the post-COVID-19 era, China appears to be focusing on bolstering its rural economy. China claims to have brought nearly 100 million people out of poverty since 2012, but the regime feels that unbalanced development can jeopardise the gains of poverty alleviation. The widening economic gap could also foment unrest in the rural areas. Additionally, the government believes that the reliance on grain

Defence Acquisition Procedure 2020: Imperatives for Further Reforms
Feb 04, 2021

Defence Acquisition Procedure 2020: Imperatives for Further Reforms

The Ministry of Defence released the Defence Acquisition Procedure 2020 (DAP 2020) in September last year, in a move to further streamline the procurement process and provide a boost to indigenous arms manufacturing. This brief argues that measures articulated in the DAP—highly anticipated as it was—need to be complemented by additional reforms to create a robust procurement machinery that supports faster and cheaper acquisition as well as hi

Deradicalisation as Counterterrorism Strategy: The Experience of Indian States
Aug 04, 2020

Deradicalisation as Counterterrorism Strategy: The Experience of Indian States

Various Indian states have attempted to implement their respective deradicalisation programmes to counter radicalised thought amongst those identified as being at-risk, as well as those contemplating on joining, or are returning after having joined terror groups. Maharashtra and Kerala, for example, claim that their programmes are a success. Yet little is known regarding the structure of these deradicalisation programmes, their implementation, th

Despite Shifts, Japan’s Defence and Security Policy Remains on Pacifist Ground
Aug 14, 2023

Despite Shifts, Japan’s Defence and Security Policy Remains on Pacifist Ground

In the past decade, Japan made certain critical changes in its defence and security policy. These include enhancing the country’s defence capabilities, introducing the right to collective self-defence, abandoning the ban on arms exports, strengthening its alliance with the United States, and promoting its vision of a ‘Free and Open Indo-Pacific’. Japan has introduced these changes incrementally, as a response to changing strategic circumsta

Devas v. Antrix: Lessons for India in Navigating Bilateral Investment Treaty Disputes
Aug 14, 2023

Devas v. Antrix: Lessons for India in Navigating Bilateral Investment Treaty Disputes

In Devas Multimedia Pvt. Ltd v. Antrix Corporation Ltd, the Supreme Court of India has upheld the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) order winding up Devas Multimedia Ltd on the grounds of fraud. Antrix is the commercial arm of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), and Devas is a multimedia services company. The decision comes at a crucial time, as foreign investors of Devas are endeavouring to attach Indian assets

Digital Futures: Leveraging G20 for UK-India Cooperation
Aug 04, 2022

Digital Futures: Leveraging G20 for UK-India Cooperation

India will assume the presidency of the G20 in 2023. One of the key policy challenges for India and other member states is how to regulate the global digital economy. Once a fringe policy issue, the global digital economy is now central to the G20 agenda, with significant implications for individuals, corporations, and governments. Bilateral cooperation within the G20 system can provide additional resources and capability to any presidency, which

Diverging US and Indian Approaches to Europe: The Problem of Ukraine
Aug 14, 2023

Diverging US and Indian Approaches to Europe: The Problem of Ukraine

The US-India strategic partnership is rooted in the Indo-Pacific region. Nonetheless, developments in Europe, such as the war in Ukraine, have implications for US-India cooperation. The Ukraine conflict could distract the US, diverting its attention to Europe, and impeding its efforts to build Indian strategic capacity. Differing responses to the war can also create tensions between the two countries, as the US seeks to punish Russia, and

Driving Across the South Asian Borders: The Motor Vehicle Agreement Between Bhutan, Bangladesh, India and Nepal
Sep 04, 2015

Driving Across the South Asian Borders: The Motor Vehicle Agreement Between Bhutan, Bangladesh, India and Nepal

The benefits of strengthening physical connectivity in a geographically contiguous region are increasingly being recognised. These links are expected to increase economic activity and people-to-people interaction, leading in turn to regional and sub-regional integration. In this backdrop, the Motor Vehicle Agreement (MVA) signed among Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal is expected to facilitate cross-border movement of vehicles, thereby reducing

Dynamics of US Force Transformation
Dec 25, 2006

Dynamics of US Force Transformation

In September 2002, the Bush administration officially introduced its national security strategy report. In response to the devastating attacks on the epicentre of America's financial and defence establishment, President Bush outlined the fundamental tenets of a strategy that was authored to contend with changes caused due to the "profound transformation" in the current security environment. President Bush proclaimed that, in order to protect Amer

East Asia’s History Wars
Jan 20, 2021

East Asia’s History Wars

This brief examines the historical dimension of the tensions between Japan and South Korea and its implications on the current breakdown in their bilateral relationship. It argues that the battle over historical memory has led to lasting animosity between the two countries, contributing to serious problems in their defence ties and creating space for China to expand its influence in the region. The brief explores why efforts to overcome the histo

Emotions and Vote Choice: Perspectives from the US and India
Mar 02, 2021

Emotions and Vote Choice: Perspectives from the US and India

While the idea that emotional appeal is central to political persuasion may serve common intuition, the dynamics underscoring how and why this is so, remain underexplored. This primer collates insights from neuroscience and political psychology to show why emotions are essential to vote choice. It explores the effects of emotional appeals on voter perceptions using examples from campaign advertisements in US elections. The analysis finds that pol

Enter the ‘DragonBear’: The Russia-China Partnership and What it Means for Geopolitics
Aug 14, 2023

Enter the ‘DragonBear’: The Russia-China Partnership and What it Means for Geopolitics

Russia’s ongoing war against Ukraine follows its annexation of Crimea in 2014 and its continued direct support for separatist activities in eastern Ukraine, marking a new chapter in Moscow's geopolitical approach. China's response and its overt diplomatic, financial, and economic support for Russia was also noteworthy. This brief assesses the contours of the new geopolitical formation (the ‘DragonBear’, a term coined by this author)

Europe: यूरोप में युद्ध के बाद जर्मनी की रक्षा नीति
Dec 13, 2022

Europe: यूरोप में युद्ध के बाद जर्मनी की रक्षा नीति

जर्मनी की राष्ट्रीय सुरक्षा रणनीति विदेश और सुरक्षा नीत�

Examining China’s adherence to international norms
Aug 20, 2023

Examining China’s adherence to international norms

China has often showed a lack of willingness to abide by not only established international law but also certain norms that the global community has fostered over the years. It has flouted the decision issued by an arbitration court at The Hague regarding its claims in the South China Sea; it has also appropriated intellectual property.  In the 1970s when the Western economies were taking the lead in setting global norms while balancing the thre

Examining India’s stance on the Rohingya crisis
Aug 21, 2023

Examining India’s stance on the Rohingya crisis

The current debate on Delhi’s approach towards the Rohingya crisis focuses principally on the implications. While this aspect, without doubt, deserves careful examination, there is a need for a more holistic understanding. This brief fills the gap by shifting the focus on the role that India is playing in finding a solution to the crisis. It looks beyond what the approach means for India and explores ways for Delhi to further deepen and expand

Exploring new drivers in India-Russia cooperation
Oct 24, 2017

Exploring new drivers in India-Russia cooperation

The 70th anniversary of Russia-India relations is an opportune time to make a comprehensive assessment of the current state of their cooperation, keeping in mind the long history of friendship between the two countries. In the last few years, India and Russia have been struggling to retain the legacy of their long-term relationship while moving beyond the traditional spheres of cooperation to reach new heights. To expand their bilateral agenda,

Fast-Tracking the Flight of India’s Drone Industry
Aug 16, 2023

Fast-Tracking the Flight of India’s Drone Industry

India is keen to leverage its nascent civilian drone (or unmanned aerial vehicle) industry to become a global hub. Since 2021, it has built a conducive policy ecosystem to support the domestic drone industry. In what this brief collectively calls the ‘Drone Regulations 3.0’, it includes the liberalised Drone Rules 2021, a production linked incentive scheme, the unmanned aerial vehicle traffic management policy, the certification scheme for un

Fighting Future Wars: Preparing India for Conflicts in the 21st Century
Aug 14, 2023

Fighting Future Wars: Preparing India for Conflicts in the 21st Century

A nation-state—with its numerous institutions, actors, and daily interactions—is a complex system and it is a tall task to predict the future trajectory of any of its sub-systems such as the armed forces. What is certain, though, is that every sovereign state aims to have a military that is of the highest possible calibre. One of two paths may be chosen to achieve this goal: tying-in the military’s capability development with the ec

Foreign Fighters in Ukraine: The Indian Position
Aug 14, 2023

Foreign Fighters in Ukraine: The Indian Position

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has led to a full-fledged international armed conflict, and the Ukrainian president has issued a call to people across the world to join the country’s battle through the International Legion of Territorial Defence (ILTD). At the time of writing, 500 Indians have submitted applications to join the ILTD, and one is already in the force. This brief contextualises the rise of Indians fighting ‘foreign’ war

Forging China-Resistant Supplier Compacts
Aug 14, 2023

Forging China-Resistant Supplier Compacts

China’s approach to trade has stood impervious to change. It is time for a new geoeconomic approach to counter China. Like-minded nations can fashion rapid arrangements to grow the supply chains that matter most, such as for electric vehicles (EV). The US and India, plus Australia, Canada, Japan, Britain, Taiwan, Korea, and Mexico can form an EV supply chain compact to create a level playing field within the group and incentivise their

From Buyer to Builder: The Indian Navy’s Rocky Road to Self-Reliance
Sep 10, 2020

From Buyer to Builder: The Indian Navy’s Rocky Road to Self-Reliance

This paper evaluates deficiencies in India’s naval shipbuilding programme, and identifies factors that adversely impact naval warship construction in the country. It argues that despite considerable effort, India’s shipbuilding endeavours continue to suffer from systemic deficits that cannot be addressed through ad hoc policy interventions and short-term solutions. Through an assessment of strengths and weaknesses of India’s defence shipyar

From Trump to Biden, Continuity and Change in the US’s China Policy
Aug 16, 2023

From Trump to Biden, Continuity and Change in the US’s China Policy

A year and a half since United States (US) President Joe Biden took the helm, both sides of the country’s political divide continue to debate whether the incumbent’s China policy is distinct from that of the Trump administration. The Republicans claim that Biden’s China policy has not veered away from Trump’s; the Democrats, meanwhile, argue that it is different. This brief weighs in on the debate, and finds that despite the Biden

From ‘Pivot to Asia’ to Trump’s ARIA: What drives the US’ Current Asia policy?
Feb 19, 2020

From ‘Pivot to Asia’ to Trump’s ARIA: What drives the US’ Current Asia policy?

After President Donald Trump’s 2017 visit to Asia, the Indo-Pacific region assumed greater significance in the United States’ foreign policy calculus, as articulated in the ‘Indo-Pacific Strategy Report’ released by the US Department of Defence. On 31 December 2018, Trump passed the Asia Reassurance Initiative Act (ARIA), which authorises US$1.5 billion in spending for a range of US programmes in East Asia and Southeast Asia to “develop

G-20 की बैठक में क्यों छाया रहा LAC का मुद्दा
Jul 09, 2022

G-20 की बैठक में क्यों छाया रहा LAC का मुद्दा

इस अंतरराष्‍ट्रीय मंच पर चीन के विदेश मंत्री एलएसी की समस्‍या को छोड़ भारत-चीन संबंधों पर ज्‍यादा बोले. चीनी विदेश मंत्री ने कहा कि चीन एवं भारत के संबंधों में सुधार की दिश�

G20 का ऋण अदायगी स्थगन कार्यक्रम: ऐतिहासिक पड़ताल!
Jul 04, 2022

G20 का ऋण अदायगी स्थगन कार्यक्रम: ऐतिहासिक पड़ताल!

हाल के समय में वैश्विक कर्ज़ों के स्तरों में उछाल के चलते

G20 के समूह देश: प्रवासी नागरिकों की आर्थिक विकास में अहम् भूमिका!
Oct 07, 2022

G20 के समूह देश: प्रवासी नागरिकों की आर्थिक विकास में अहम् भूमिका!

G20 देशों में घटते श्रम बल के असर को कम करने में प्रवासी एक न�

Geneva II: Breakthrough or Stalemate?
Aug 23, 2023

Geneva II: Breakthrough or Stalemate?

With the stage set for the Geneva II conference on Syria, positions have been drawn, bargaining will be tough and the outcome could go either way.

Hong Kong’s National Security Law: Implications for India
Oct 08, 2020

Hong Kong’s National Security Law: Implications for India

China has enacted a National Security Law for the special administrative region of Hong Kong. The provisions of the law can be used to curb peaceful dissent and enhance Beijing’s control over the region. It has the potential to not only change Hong Kong’s legal and political autonomy, but also alter its status as a global financial centre. This paper offers an overview of the national security law and its implications for the ‘one country,

Human Rights and US Foreign Policy: Implications for India and China
Apr 28, 2021

Human Rights and US Foreign Policy: Implications for India and China

Human rights issues have been a cornerstone of US foreign policy since the end of the Cold War. This paper examines Washington’s human rights focus on India and China under former President Donald Trump, and identifies trends under the current Joe Biden administration. The paper notes an emergent US bipartisan approach to refocus on Beijing’s human rights record following a period of policy dissonance owing to concerns to protect its economic

Imagining a global IR out of India
Aug 17, 2023

Imagining a global IR out of India

The global order is fast-changing; the field of International Relations (IR), less so. Despite the rise of other countries in economic and geopolitical terms, the field of IR continues to be dominated by the West and its theories, methods and policy concerns. The idea of ‘Global IR’ proposed in this brief aims to make the field more inclusive and universal. After outlining the major elements of a Global IR paradigm, the brief suggests that In

India and China in Central Asia: Understanding the new rivalry in the heart of Eurasia
Feb 17, 2020

India and China in Central Asia: Understanding the new rivalry in the heart of Eurasia

After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, India established official ties with the five former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; so did China. In recent years, both India and China have come up with different strategies to strengthen their respective ties with these resource-rich economies, collectively called the Central Asian Republics (CARs). China’s strategy is the ambitious Belt and Roa

India and China: A gathering nuclear storm?
Aug 21, 2023

India and China: A gathering nuclear storm?

The Doklam crisis of 2017 illustrates the increasing tension in India and China’s nuclear relationship. There are elements of stability and instability in such relationship, and this brief examines them. Stability, on one hand, is derived from a history of military and political restraint, ongoing institutionalised negotiations, and growing economic relations. However, the continuing border dispute and disagreement on a non-demarcated Line of A

India and global trade governance: Redefining its ‘national’ interest
Dec 24, 2017

India and global trade governance: Redefining its ‘national’ interest

This paper considers and explains the shifts and consistencies in India’s engagement with structures of global trade governance beginning from the Uruguay round of trade negotiations in late 1980s. It makes three major arguments. First, that although India has participated actively in global trade negotiations since the establishment of the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) it was only under the present-day trade governance institut

India and International Sanctions: Delhi’s Role as a Sanctioner
Sep 26, 2013

India and International Sanctions: Delhi’s Role as a Sanctioner

Over the years, sanctions have emerged as a preferred foreign-policy tool for many States, especially in the West. Sanctions serve a number of purposes, including the application of economic and political pressure on specific governments with a view to change their stance on a particular issue. International organisations, throughout the 20th century, used sanctions to impose their positions. The League of Nations first imposed sanctions in 1921

India and Japan: Changing Dimensions of Partnership in the post-Cold War Period
Mar 06, 2010

India and Japan: Changing Dimensions of Partnership in the post-Cold War Period

Indo-Japanese relations have witnessed a paradigm shift since 2000 when both countries launched a global partnership in order to address a range of issues affecting regional and global peace and prosperity. Systematic efforts made by the leaders of both countries since then have strengthened their partnership. Until very recently, their interactions were mainly limited to economic issues, but today they cover a wide spectrum of subjects including

India and Saudi Arabia: The Scope for Greater Security Cooperation
Aug 23, 2023

India and Saudi Arabia: The Scope for Greater Security Cooperation

Saudi Arabia and India recently signed a defence cooperation agreement, signalling a shift in ties. This issue brief looks at the importance of Indo-Saudi relations from a geopolitical perspective, outlines the trajectory of their bilateral defence partnership, and emphasises the symbiotic nature of their relations and the increasing scope for greater cooperation.

India and the U.S. Make a Strategic Case for Health Cooperation
Aug 17, 2023

India and the U.S. Make a Strategic Case for Health Cooperation

India and the United States (US) have been cooperating in the health sector since the late 1960s. The cooperation has intensified in the past decade, riding on institutional structures established following the launch of the US-India Health Initiative in 2010. It has seen further expansion since the COVID-19 pandemic, and today covers a wide range of areas including disease prevention and combating infectious diseases, maternal and child

India Calibrates its South China Sea Approach
Jul 19, 2021

India Calibrates its South China Sea Approach

India has historically taken a neutral position in the disputes along the South China Sea involving China and countries of Southeast Asia, even as the tensions have threatened the security in the region. In more recent times, however, there has been a noticeable change in India’s stance. This brief ponders this shift: the rationale behind India’s responses vis-à-vis the disputes, and their implications on the country’s ‘Act East’ and

India in the Era of ‘Silicon Diplomacy’
Aug 17, 2023

India in the Era of ‘Silicon Diplomacy’

The global shortage in semiconductors that occurred during the Covid-19 pandemic, resulted in heavy losses for many economic sectors. The fragility of the supply chain and the innate dependencies within, have made semiconductor collaboration essential to maintain the industry’s efficiency. This brief examines how semiconductors have become a fulcrum for building potential technology alliances. It outlines ongoing diplomatic initiatives

India in the Indo-Pacific: A Kautilyan Strategy for the Maritime Mandala
Aug 14, 2023

India in the Indo-Pacific: A Kautilyan Strategy for the Maritime Mandala

This brief seeks to apply ancient Indian strategic thought in the study of the country’s contemporary maritime relations. It argues that India should shift its maritime strategy from a largely continental posture to one that focuses on the country’s maritime mandala. Using concepts from the ancient Indian political treatise, Arthashastra, this brief contends that a “return of history” via the Indo-Pacific, and re-emerging multipolarity, r