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India: A great power or a great presence?
Oct 02, 2021

India: A great power or a great presence?

Is India ready to enter the league of superpower nations?

India: Prime Minister's visit opens up new chapter with Nepal
Aug 08, 2014

India: Prime Minister's visit opens up new chapter with Nepal

From all accounts, the two-day visit of Prime Minister Narendra Modi to Nepal on August 2-3 was a success. It was also a demonstration of the BJP-led government's neighbourhood policy which seems to be at the core of country's foreign policy.

India: UPA seeks to regain initiative
Aug 10, 2012

India: UPA seeks to regain initiative

A battered UPA-II, battling to shrug off the 'policy paralysis' tag, appears to be regaining confidence after it managed to get its presidential and vice-presidential candidates elected.

India@76: Batting hard for an African seat in the G20
Aug 14, 2023

India@76: Batting hard for an African seat in the G20

In its efforts to be the voice of the Global South, India has continued to push for an African Union seat at the G20 during its presidency

Indian cities and the need for scrapyards
Oct 07, 2023

Indian cities and the need for scrapyards

The vehicle scrappage policy should be implemented as it would allow for greater mobility and enable municipal sweepers to keep the roads clean

Indian Consumption Expenditure Survey: Focusing beyond the trends
Mar 29, 2024

Indian Consumption Expenditure Survey: Focusing beyond the trends

By studying India’s consumption patterns over time, effective policies can be undertaken to boost India’s economic growth

Indian economy: 2023 wrapped
Jan 02, 2024

Indian economy: 2023 wrapped

To ensure organic, responsible growth in 2024, India will have to implement a policy structure which is unique to a developing nation in the current g

Indian Frontier Administrative Service: An unexplored ace in India’s deck
Sep 28, 2020

Indian Frontier Administrative Service: An unexplored ace in India’s deck

If resurrected today, the role of the IFAS needs to be redefined, that is not to be an exact copy of the 1950s IFAS. The IFAS of the current day and a

Indian generics emerge as a life-saver in COVID-hit China
Dec 21, 2022

Indian generics emerge as a life-saver in COVID-hit China

With the rise in COVID cases in China, the popularity of anti-COVID drugs from India seems to have also ratcheted up

India–EU Relations: क्या रिश्तों की अपार संभावनाओं से अब भी दूर खड़ी है दोस्ती?
Jul 30, 2023

India–EU Relations: क्या रिश्तों की अपार संभावनाओं से अब भी दूर खड़ी है दोस्ती?

1990 के दशक से व्यापारिक संबंधों में बढ़ोतरी के साथ भारत-ईयू

India–EU TTC meet: Amping up the strategic partnership
May 24, 2023

India–EU TTC meet: Amping up the strategic partnership

The TTC will enable India and the EU to add heft to their strategic partnership and showcase their strengths and policy outlooks on issues of mutual i

India–Saudi Arabia military cooperation takes a step forward
Feb 22, 2022

India–Saudi Arabia military cooperation takes a step forward

Even though India has little to offer in comparison to other countries in terms of defence technology, it can aspire to become a hub for cooperative d

India–UAE CEPA: कैसे अपनाया जाए एक समग्र दृष्टिकोण!
Jul 31, 2023

India–UAE CEPA: कैसे अपनाया जाए एक समग्र दृष्टिकोण!

यूएई और भारत सीईपीए मंच का अधिकतम लाभ उठाने के लिए, भारत औ�

India–UAE CEPA: भारत के मुक्त व्यापार समझौतों का भविष्य क्या होगा?
Jul 31, 2023

India–UAE CEPA: भारत के मुक्त व्यापार समझौतों का भविष्य क्या होगा?

भारत और संयुक्त अरब अमीरात का व्यापक आर्थिक भागीदारी समझ

India’s balancing partnerships in Eurasia
Feb 27, 2019

India’s balancing partnerships in Eurasia

An interview of ORF President to the Institut Montaigne on India’s foreign policy choices, in particular relations with China, Russia and the Europe

India’s challenges in extraditing fugitives from foreign countries
Aug 21, 2023

India’s challenges in extraditing fugitives from foreign countries

With the advent of globalisation and increased interconnectivity, it has become less difficult for offenders in India to escape to foreign jurisdictions and avoid prosecution in the country. The importance of extraditing fugitives and bringing them before Indian courts cannot be stressed enough. Apart from providing timely justice and grievance redressal, it also serves as a deterrent against potential fugitives. However, India’s success rate i

India’s Connectivity Projects with Myanmar, Post-Coup: A Stocktaking
Feb 22, 2023

India’s Connectivity Projects with Myanmar, Post-Coup: A Stocktaking

Myanmar, which shares a border with four of India’s north-eastern states—Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur, and Nagaland—is crucial to the country’s ‘Act East’ policy. India has a number of projects with Myanmar in the pipeline, seeking to improve physical connectivity through transport links, which in turn can assist in both countries’ development goals. Since the military coup in Myanmar on 1 February 2021, the country has been

India’s East Asia outreach shows its centrality to regional stability
Apr 15, 2024

India’s East Asia outreach shows its centrality to regional stability

New Delhi is trying to deepen ties to confront common threats but in-group differences pose hurdles

India’s emerging technology challenge
Oct 16, 2020

India’s emerging technology challenge

Ad-hoc research initiatives and infrequent budgetary allocations would not suffice if India is to develop a vibrant research ecosystem.

India’s Enduring Urban Housing Shortage: The Case for Upgrading Informal Settlements
Jul 23, 2023

India’s Enduring Urban Housing Shortage: The Case for Upgrading Informal Settlements

In 2015, the Indian government launched the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Urban (PMAY-U) as a response to the perennial challenge of shortage in urban housing. As of June 2021, 11.2 million houses have been sanctioned under PMAY-U, of which 4.8 million have been completed. However, various analyses indicate that PMAY-U dwellings may be insufficient in quantity, and that some of them may be either unaffordable or unviable for those who need them the

India’s Era of Partnerships: From Non-Alignment to Crafting a ‘New Balance’
Jan 26, 2022

India’s Era of Partnerships: From Non-Alignment to Crafting a ‘New Balance’

India is shedding its past diffidence in foreign policy matters and is making bold moves in crafting partnerships for a rules-based, democratic intern

India’s evolving views on responsibility to protect (R2P) and humanitarian interventions: The significance of legitimacy
Dec 24, 2017

India’s evolving views on responsibility to protect (R2P) and humanitarian interventions: The significance of legitimacy

The role of legitimacy in India’s approach to the doctrine of the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ (R2P) and Humanitarian Interventions (HIs) has not received as much attention as it is due. The following paper evaluates India’s evolving views on R2P and HIs through the prism of legitimacy. It also demonstrates why the outcome of an HI, whether through the medium of the R2P or otherwise, matters as much as motives. Most Indian debates about R2

India’s G20 Presidency and the Macroeconomic Dilemma
Oct 01, 2022

India’s G20 Presidency and the Macroeconomic Dilemma

To stave off the public debt crisis, a tailored long-term macroeconomic policy response is essential to address the challenges at hand.

India’s hedging strategy is bound to fail
Jun 21, 2018

India’s hedging strategy is bound to fail

India is asking China to trust its words, not its actions. Beijing knows better.

India’s Innovation Ecosystem: Mapping the Trends
Feb 08, 2021

India’s Innovation Ecosystem: Mapping the Trends

The integration of Science, Technology and Innovation goals into national policies helps achieve sustained economic and social development. This brief examines the key parameters that govern the global and Indian innovation ecosystems: research investment, education policy, researcher density, publication output, number of patents registered, and the startup environment. It finds that certain elements are crucial in developing a robust strategic

India’s Malabar Dilemma
May 10, 2023

India’s Malabar Dilemma

Speculations are rife about India possibly inviting Australia for the next Malabar naval exercise—which COVID-19 has caused to be moved to 2021.[1] If true, this would represent a break from the past and signal a change in the Asian strategic environment. Over the past few years, India has consistently resisted including Australia in the exercise, despite the latter’s willingness. The only other time that Australia was included in the Malabar

India’s Maritime Agenda Pivots to Western Indian Ocean
Aug 16, 2023

India’s Maritime Agenda Pivots to Western Indian Ocean

The Western Indian Ocean Region (WIOR) is linked to India in several ways, yet it remains conspicuous in its absence from India’s foreign policy discourse. This lack of attention is now beginning to reverse as external players stake their geopolitical claims in the region. India has responded by reorienting its own nautical outlook towards WIOR and building friendly relationships with African countries that straddle the region. This bri

India’s Move on Kashmir Puts Pakistan on the back foot
Aug 08, 2019

India’s Move on Kashmir Puts Pakistan on the back foot

India’s decision to revoke Article 370 giving special status to Jammu & Kashmir has put Pakistan on the back foot, dealt New Delhi back into the Sou

India’s must look beyond ASEAN in regional security
Nov 08, 2019

India’s must look beyond ASEAN in regional security

In recognition of ASEAN’s limitations, New Delhi must also continue to strengthen its ties with other institutions, frameworks, and countries as well.

India’s outreach to the Taliban: Engage, don’t endorse
Jun 08, 2022

India’s outreach to the Taliban: Engage, don’t endorse

India should not press brakes on its Afghan policy and should seize the important strategic and security opportunities offered by Afghanistan.

India’s Pacific pathways in Papua New Guinea
May 03, 2023

India’s Pacific pathways in Papua New Guinea

Over the years, India’s foreign policy objectives overlooked the PIC narrative but that is changing in the post pandemic world order 

India’s Participation in the NSG: Capturing the Debate
Apr 27, 2015

India’s Participation in the NSG: Capturing the Debate

The paper examines how the Nuclear Suppliers Group has evolved over the years and the role the Group defines for itself. It also attempts to provide a more nuanced understanding of the consequences of India's NSG-membership.

India’s preferences for arms acquisitions
Mar 05, 2022

India’s preferences for arms acquisitions

Irrespective of the policy strategy adopted by India, it will prefer to expand its domestic production over buying from other countries

India’s pursuit of United Nations Security Council reforms
Dec 24, 2017

India’s pursuit of United Nations Security Council reforms

The United Nations Security Council has emerged as the key arena and barometer for evaluating the promise and progress of accommodating new, rising powers in the international system. The case of India provides one of the best examples of a rising power coming to terms with its increased power, role and expectations of itself and of other powers, great and small, in negotiating its place in the reformed Council as a permanent member. This paper b

India’s regional power status under a cloud
Feb 28, 2018

India’s regional power status under a cloud

India’s talk of an ‘Act East’ policy or an Indian Ocean presence sounds hollow when its ability to shape outcomes in its own neighbourhood is so limited

India’s reluctance in joining the RCEP — A boon or a bane in the long-run?
Feb 10, 2021

India’s reluctance in joining the RCEP — A boon or a bane in the long-run?

The success of not signing the RCEP should be measured by the extent to which India is able to align the goals of its foreign trade policy.

India’s responsible nuclear exceptionalism towards effective export controls
Jun 11, 2024

India’s responsible nuclear exceptionalism towards effective export controls

The 50th anniversary of PNE highlights India's role as a responsible nuclear power, committed to full compliance and advancing global non-proliferatio

India’s skillful posturing with the US
Oct 20, 2018

India’s skillful posturing with the US

India and the US may have policy differences on Russia and Iran, but keep big-picture focus on defense cooperation

India’s South China Sea posture is still in its infancy
May 17, 2023

India’s South China Sea posture is still in its infancy

Overstating Indian activism in the Western Pacific creates a false narrative that is harmful to balanced policymaking.  

India’s Stakes in Taliban-Ruled Afghanistan
Aug 01, 2023

India’s Stakes in Taliban-Ruled Afghanistan

The Taliban’s return to power in Afghanistan in August 2021 changed the strategic dynamics in the region. For India, the new regime and its attendant risks—especially the threat of terrorism—quickly put it in an unenviable position. This brief assesses India’s policy towards Afghanistan since August 2021. It will cover how India has articulated its Afghan policy, domestically and in multilateral organisations, and its incremental

India’s Uganda outreach requires a careful balancing act
Mar 12, 2024

India’s Uganda outreach requires a careful balancing act

India’s renewed relationship with Uganda presents a test cast for Indian diplomacy

India’s Use of Force: The Missing Indirect Approach
Sep 14, 2023

India’s Use of Force: The Missing Indirect Approach

Why does India have so few available options to manage security threats? In crisis management, Indian policy-makers have faced all-or-nothing choices, either passively absorbing provocations, or overreacting with massive mobilisations and threats of general war. In wartime, with the notable exception of the 1971 war, India has generally fought to degrade enemy military capabilities rather than to achieve decisive operational effects. This paper a

India’s ‘Look Far East’: The Vladivostok moment in Indo-Russian relations
May 26, 2020

India’s ‘Look Far East’: The Vladivostok moment in Indo-Russian relations

This paper explains Russian co-option of India into the Eastern Economic Forum (EEF) at a high level of participation in September 2019 and the range of agreements involved. It argues that the co-option was the result of Russian President Vladimir Putin’s dissatisfaction with the economic outcomes so far for the Russian Far East of “northeast Asian regional cooperation.” Moscow related this behaviour to skewed priorities of East Asia’s �

Indo-US Agricultural Cooperation From “Green” to “Evergreen” Revolution?
Jul 23, 2023

Indo-US Agricultural Cooperation From “Green” to “Evergreen” Revolution?

India and the US are poised to expand agricultural cooperation with the hope of bringing about a "Second Green Revolution" in India. Cooperation in this area would, however, need to take into account the interests of Indian farmers as well as issues related to bio-diversity and the environment.

Indonesia’s Triumphs and Limitations as It Stakes Claim to Leadership in Southeast Asia
Mar 14, 2023

Indonesia’s Triumphs and Limitations as It Stakes Claim to Leadership in Southeast Asia

Since the creation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1967, Indonesia has endeavoured to play a leading role in shaping Southeast Asia’s regional security architecture; this continues to be true amidst the more recent shifts taking place in the global geopolitical landscape. Accordingly, the nature of Jakarta’s contributions towards Southeast Asian security reflects the dynamics of its national foreign policy dec

Indus: Connecting the drops
Jun 26, 2012

Indus: Connecting the drops

Given the dependence of Indus River on glacial melt, extensive joint studies on the complex and unique Himalayan systems must be conducted and data must be shared openly, suggested an international conference in Kathmandu organised by ORF, Stimson Center, USA, and Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Pakistan.

Inflation soars, nation on the brink
Aug 09, 2010

Inflation soars, nation on the brink

The UPA government's economic policy is insensitive to the woes of the common man whose share of heady GDP growth is only high prices and misery. The fires of rage now sweeping India was only to be expected.

Infrastructure, institutions and industrialisation: The Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor and regional development in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh
Aug 21, 2023

Infrastructure, institutions and industrialisation: The Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor and regional development in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh

The Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) is one of several infrastructure megaprojects underway in India, intended to boost industrial modernisation and generate manufacturing employment for India’s young, largely unskilled workforce. Field research in DMIC investment sites in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh shows that its implementation is highly uneven across States and regions. The research, along with the literature, suggests that regional ind